linux/sound/drivers/dummy.c
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   1// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0-or-later
   2/*
   3 *  Dummy soundcard
   4 *  Copyright (c) by Jaroslav Kysela <perex@perex.cz>
   5 */
   6
   7#include <linux/init.h>
   8#include <linux/err.h>
   9#include <linux/platform_device.h>
  10#include <linux/jiffies.h>
  11#include <linux/slab.h>
  12#include <linux/time.h>
  13#include <linux/wait.h>
  14#include <linux/hrtimer.h>
  15#include <linux/math64.h>
  16#include <linux/module.h>
  17#include <sound/core.h>
  18#include <sound/control.h>
  19#include <sound/tlv.h>
  20#include <sound/pcm.h>
  21#include <sound/rawmidi.h>
  22#include <sound/info.h>
  23#include <sound/initval.h>
  24
  25MODULE_AUTHOR("Jaroslav Kysela <perex@perex.cz>");
  26MODULE_DESCRIPTION("Dummy soundcard (/dev/null)");
  27MODULE_LICENSE("GPL");
  28MODULE_SUPPORTED_DEVICE("{{ALSA,Dummy soundcard}}");
  29
  30#define MAX_PCM_DEVICES         4
  31#define MAX_PCM_SUBSTREAMS      128
  32#define MAX_MIDI_DEVICES        2
  33
  34/* defaults */
  35#define MAX_BUFFER_SIZE         (64*1024)
  36#define MIN_PERIOD_SIZE         64
  37#define MAX_PERIOD_SIZE         MAX_BUFFER_SIZE
  38#define USE_FORMATS             (SNDRV_PCM_FMTBIT_U8 | SNDRV_PCM_FMTBIT_S16_LE)
  39#define USE_RATE                SNDRV_PCM_RATE_CONTINUOUS | SNDRV_PCM_RATE_8000_48000
  40#define USE_RATE_MIN            5500
  41#define USE_RATE_MAX            48000
  42#define USE_CHANNELS_MIN        1
  43#define USE_CHANNELS_MAX        2
  44#define USE_PERIODS_MIN         1
  45#define USE_PERIODS_MAX         1024
  46
  47static int index[SNDRV_CARDS] = SNDRV_DEFAULT_IDX;      /* Index 0-MAX */
  48static char *id[SNDRV_CARDS] = SNDRV_DEFAULT_STR;       /* ID for this card */
  49static bool enable[SNDRV_CARDS] = {1, [1 ... (SNDRV_CARDS - 1)] = 0};
  50static char *model[SNDRV_CARDS] = {[0 ... (SNDRV_CARDS - 1)] = NULL};
  51static int pcm_devs[SNDRV_CARDS] = {[0 ... (SNDRV_CARDS - 1)] = 1};
  52static int pcm_substreams[SNDRV_CARDS] = {[0 ... (SNDRV_CARDS - 1)] = 8};
  53//static int midi_devs[SNDRV_CARDS] = {[0 ... (SNDRV_CARDS - 1)] = 2};
  54#ifdef CONFIG_HIGH_RES_TIMERS
  55static bool hrtimer = 1;
  56#endif
  57static bool fake_buffer = 1;
  58
  59module_param_array(index, int, NULL, 0444);
  60MODULE_PARM_DESC(index, "Index value for dummy soundcard.");
  61module_param_array(id, charp, NULL, 0444);
  62MODULE_PARM_DESC(id, "ID string for dummy soundcard.");
  63module_param_array(enable, bool, NULL, 0444);
  64MODULE_PARM_DESC(enable, "Enable this dummy soundcard.");
  65module_param_array(model, charp, NULL, 0444);
  66MODULE_PARM_DESC(model, "Soundcard model.");
  67module_param_array(pcm_devs, int, NULL, 0444);
  68MODULE_PARM_DESC(pcm_devs, "PCM devices # (0-4) for dummy driver.");
  69module_param_array(pcm_substreams, int, NULL, 0444);
  70MODULE_PARM_DESC(pcm_substreams, "PCM substreams # (1-128) for dummy driver.");
  71//module_param_array(midi_devs, int, NULL, 0444);
  72//MODULE_PARM_DESC(midi_devs, "MIDI devices # (0-2) for dummy driver.");
  73module_param(fake_buffer, bool, 0444);
  74MODULE_PARM_DESC(fake_buffer, "Fake buffer allocations.");
  75#ifdef CONFIG_HIGH_RES_TIMERS
  76module_param(hrtimer, bool, 0644);
  77MODULE_PARM_DESC(hrtimer, "Use hrtimer as the timer source.");
  78#endif
  79
  80static struct platform_device *devices[SNDRV_CARDS];
  81
  82#define MIXER_ADDR_MASTER       0
  83#define MIXER_ADDR_LINE         1
  84#define MIXER_ADDR_MIC          2
  85#define MIXER_ADDR_SYNTH        3
  86#define MIXER_ADDR_CD           4
  87#define MIXER_ADDR_LAST         4
  88
  89struct dummy_timer_ops {
  90        int (*create)(struct snd_pcm_substream *);
  91        void (*free)(struct snd_pcm_substream *);
  92        int (*prepare)(struct snd_pcm_substream *);
  93        int (*start)(struct snd_pcm_substream *);
  94        int (*stop)(struct snd_pcm_substream *);
  95        snd_pcm_uframes_t (*pointer)(struct snd_pcm_substream *);
  96};
  97
  98#define get_dummy_ops(substream) \
  99        (*(const struct dummy_timer_ops **)(substream)->runtime->private_data)
 100
 101struct dummy_model {
 102        const char *name;
 103        int (*playback_constraints)(struct snd_pcm_runtime *runtime);
 104        int (*capture_constraints)(struct snd_pcm_runtime *runtime);
 105        u64 formats;
 106        size_t buffer_bytes_max;
 107        size_t period_bytes_min;
 108        size_t period_bytes_max;
 109        unsigned int periods_min;
 110        unsigned int periods_max;
 111        unsigned int rates;
 112        unsigned int rate_min;
 113        unsigned int rate_max;
 114        unsigned int channels_min;
 115        unsigned int channels_max;
 116};
 117
 118struct snd_dummy {
 119        struct snd_card *card;
 120        struct dummy_model *model;
 121        struct snd_pcm *pcm;
 122        struct snd_pcm_hardware pcm_hw;
 123        spinlock_t mixer_lock;
 124        int mixer_volume[MIXER_ADDR_LAST+1][2];
 125        int capture_source[MIXER_ADDR_LAST+1][2];
 126        int iobox;
 127        struct snd_kcontrol *cd_volume_ctl;
 128        struct snd_kcontrol *cd_switch_ctl;
 129};
 130
 131/*
 132 * card models
 133 */
 134
 135static int emu10k1_playback_constraints(struct snd_pcm_runtime *runtime)
 136{
 137        int err;
 138        err = snd_pcm_hw_constraint_integer(runtime, SNDRV_PCM_HW_PARAM_PERIODS);
 139        if (err < 0)
 140                return err;
 141        err = snd_pcm_hw_constraint_minmax(runtime, SNDRV_PCM_HW_PARAM_BUFFER_BYTES, 256, UINT_MAX);
 142        if (err < 0)
 143                return err;
 144        return 0;
 145}
 146
 147static struct dummy_model model_emu10k1 = {
 148        .name = "emu10k1",
 149        .playback_constraints = emu10k1_playback_constraints,
 150        .buffer_bytes_max = 128 * 1024,
 151};
 152
 153static struct dummy_model model_rme9652 = {
 154        .name = "rme9652",
 155        .buffer_bytes_max = 26 * 64 * 1024,
 156        .formats = SNDRV_PCM_FMTBIT_S32_LE,
 157        .channels_min = 26,
 158        .channels_max = 26,
 159        .periods_min = 2,
 160        .periods_max = 2,
 161};
 162
 163static struct dummy_model model_ice1712 = {
 164        .name = "ice1712",
 165        .buffer_bytes_max = 256 * 1024,
 166        .formats = SNDRV_PCM_FMTBIT_S32_LE,
 167        .channels_min = 10,
 168        .channels_max = 10,
 169        .periods_min = 1,
 170        .periods_max = 1024,
 171};
 172
 173static struct dummy_model model_uda1341 = {
 174        .name = "uda1341",
 175        .buffer_bytes_max = 16380,
 176        .formats = SNDRV_PCM_FMTBIT_S16_LE,
 177        .channels_min = 2,
 178        .channels_max = 2,
 179        .periods_min = 2,
 180        .periods_max = 255,
 181};
 182
 183static struct dummy_model model_ac97 = {
 184        .name = "ac97",
 185        .formats = SNDRV_PCM_FMTBIT_S16_LE,
 186        .channels_min = 2,
 187        .channels_max = 2,
 188        .rates = SNDRV_PCM_RATE_48000,
 189        .rate_min = 48000,
 190        .rate_max = 48000,
 191};
 192
 193static struct dummy_model model_ca0106 = {
 194        .name = "ca0106",
 195        .formats = SNDRV_PCM_FMTBIT_S16_LE,
 196        .buffer_bytes_max = ((65536-64)*8),
 197        .period_bytes_max = (65536-64),
 198        .periods_min = 2,
 199        .periods_max = 8,
 200        .channels_min = 2,
 201        .channels_max = 2,
 202        .rates = SNDRV_PCM_RATE_48000|SNDRV_PCM_RATE_96000|SNDRV_PCM_RATE_192000,
 203        .rate_min = 48000,
 204        .rate_max = 192000,
 205};
 206
 207static struct dummy_model *dummy_models[] = {
 208        &model_emu10k1,
 209        &model_rme9652,
 210        &model_ice1712,
 211        &model_uda1341,
 212        &model_ac97,
 213        &model_ca0106,
 214        NULL
 215};
 216
 217/*
 218 * system timer interface
 219 */
 220
 221struct dummy_systimer_pcm {
 222        /* ops must be the first item */
 223        const struct dummy_timer_ops *timer_ops;
 224        spinlock_t lock;
 225        struct timer_list timer;
 226        unsigned long base_time;
 227        unsigned int frac_pos;  /* fractional sample position (based HZ) */
 228        unsigned int frac_period_rest;
 229        unsigned int frac_buffer_size;  /* buffer_size * HZ */
 230        unsigned int frac_period_size;  /* period_size * HZ */
 231        unsigned int rate;
 232        int elapsed;
 233        struct snd_pcm_substream *substream;
 234};
 235
 236static void dummy_systimer_rearm(struct dummy_systimer_pcm *dpcm)
 237{
 238        mod_timer(&dpcm->timer, jiffies +
 239                (dpcm->frac_period_rest + dpcm->rate - 1) / dpcm->rate);
 240}
 241
 242static void dummy_systimer_update(struct dummy_systimer_pcm *dpcm)
 243{
 244        unsigned long delta;
 245
 246        delta = jiffies - dpcm->base_time;
 247        if (!delta)
 248                return;
 249        dpcm->base_time += delta;
 250        delta *= dpcm->rate;
 251        dpcm->frac_pos += delta;
 252        while (dpcm->frac_pos >= dpcm->frac_buffer_size)
 253                dpcm->frac_pos -= dpcm->frac_buffer_size;
 254        while (dpcm->frac_period_rest <= delta) {
 255                dpcm->elapsed++;
 256                dpcm->frac_period_rest += dpcm->frac_period_size;
 257        }
 258        dpcm->frac_period_rest -= delta;
 259}
 260
 261static int dummy_systimer_start(struct snd_pcm_substream *substream)
 262{
 263        struct dummy_systimer_pcm *dpcm = substream->runtime->private_data;
 264        spin_lock(&dpcm->lock);
 265        dpcm->base_time = jiffies;
 266        dummy_systimer_rearm(dpcm);
 267        spin_unlock(&dpcm->lock);
 268        return 0;
 269}
 270
 271static int dummy_systimer_stop(struct snd_pcm_substream *substream)
 272{
 273        struct dummy_systimer_pcm *dpcm = substream->runtime->private_data;
 274        spin_lock(&dpcm->lock);
 275        del_timer(&dpcm->timer);
 276        spin_unlock(&dpcm->lock);
 277        return 0;
 278}
 279
 280static int dummy_systimer_prepare(struct snd_pcm_substream *substream)
 281{
 282        struct snd_pcm_runtime *runtime = substream->runtime;
 283        struct dummy_systimer_pcm *dpcm = runtime->private_data;
 284
 285        dpcm->frac_pos = 0;
 286        dpcm->rate = runtime->rate;
 287        dpcm->frac_buffer_size = runtime->buffer_size * HZ;
 288        dpcm->frac_period_size = runtime->period_size * HZ;
 289        dpcm->frac_period_rest = dpcm->frac_period_size;
 290        dpcm->elapsed = 0;
 291
 292        return 0;
 293}
 294
 295static void dummy_systimer_callback(struct timer_list *t)
 296{
 297        struct dummy_systimer_pcm *dpcm = from_timer(dpcm, t, timer);
 298        unsigned long flags;
 299        int elapsed = 0;
 300        
 301        spin_lock_irqsave(&dpcm->lock, flags);
 302        dummy_systimer_update(dpcm);
 303        dummy_systimer_rearm(dpcm);
 304        elapsed = dpcm->elapsed;
 305        dpcm->elapsed = 0;
 306        spin_unlock_irqrestore(&dpcm->lock, flags);
 307        if (elapsed)
 308                snd_pcm_period_elapsed(dpcm->substream);
 309}
 310
 311static snd_pcm_uframes_t
 312dummy_systimer_pointer(struct snd_pcm_substream *substream)
 313{
 314        struct dummy_systimer_pcm *dpcm = substream->runtime->private_data;
 315        snd_pcm_uframes_t pos;
 316
 317        spin_lock(&dpcm->lock);
 318        dummy_systimer_update(dpcm);
 319        pos = dpcm->frac_pos / HZ;
 320        spin_unlock(&dpcm->lock);
 321        return pos;
 322}
 323
 324static int dummy_systimer_create(struct snd_pcm_substream *substream)
 325{
 326        struct dummy_systimer_pcm *dpcm;
 327
 328        dpcm = kzalloc(sizeof(*dpcm), GFP_KERNEL);
 329        if (!dpcm)
 330                return -ENOMEM;
 331        substream->runtime->private_data = dpcm;
 332        timer_setup(&dpcm->timer, dummy_systimer_callback, 0);
 333        spin_lock_init(&dpcm->lock);
 334        dpcm->substream = substream;
 335        return 0;
 336}
 337
 338static void dummy_systimer_free(struct snd_pcm_substream *substream)
 339{
 340        kfree(substream->runtime->private_data);
 341}
 342
 343static const struct dummy_timer_ops dummy_systimer_ops = {
 344        .create =       dummy_systimer_create,
 345        .free =         dummy_systimer_free,
 346        .prepare =      dummy_systimer_prepare,
 347        .start =        dummy_systimer_start,
 348        .stop =         dummy_systimer_stop,
 349        .pointer =      dummy_systimer_pointer,
 350};
 351
 352#ifdef CONFIG_HIGH_RES_TIMERS
 353/*
 354 * hrtimer interface
 355 */
 356
 357struct dummy_hrtimer_pcm {
 358        /* ops must be the first item */
 359        const struct dummy_timer_ops *timer_ops;
 360        ktime_t base_time;
 361        ktime_t period_time;
 362        atomic_t running;
 363        struct hrtimer timer;
 364        struct snd_pcm_substream *substream;
 365};
 366
 367static enum hrtimer_restart dummy_hrtimer_callback(struct hrtimer *timer)
 368{
 369        struct dummy_hrtimer_pcm *dpcm;
 370
 371        dpcm = container_of(timer, struct dummy_hrtimer_pcm, timer);
 372        if (!atomic_read(&dpcm->running))
 373                return HRTIMER_NORESTART;
 374        /*
 375         * In cases of XRUN and draining, this calls .trigger to stop PCM
 376         * substream.
 377         */
 378        snd_pcm_period_elapsed(dpcm->substream);
 379        if (!atomic_read(&dpcm->running))
 380                return HRTIMER_NORESTART;
 381
 382        hrtimer_forward_now(timer, dpcm->period_time);
 383        return HRTIMER_RESTART;
 384}
 385
 386static int dummy_hrtimer_start(struct snd_pcm_substream *substream)
 387{
 388        struct dummy_hrtimer_pcm *dpcm = substream->runtime->private_data;
 389
 390        dpcm->base_time = hrtimer_cb_get_time(&dpcm->timer);
 391        hrtimer_start(&dpcm->timer, dpcm->period_time, HRTIMER_MODE_REL_SOFT);
 392        atomic_set(&dpcm->running, 1);
 393        return 0;
 394}
 395
 396static int dummy_hrtimer_stop(struct snd_pcm_substream *substream)
 397{
 398        struct dummy_hrtimer_pcm *dpcm = substream->runtime->private_data;
 399
 400        atomic_set(&dpcm->running, 0);
 401        if (!hrtimer_callback_running(&dpcm->timer))
 402                hrtimer_cancel(&dpcm->timer);
 403        return 0;
 404}
 405
 406static inline void dummy_hrtimer_sync(struct dummy_hrtimer_pcm *dpcm)
 407{
 408        hrtimer_cancel(&dpcm->timer);
 409}
 410
 411static snd_pcm_uframes_t
 412dummy_hrtimer_pointer(struct snd_pcm_substream *substream)
 413{
 414        struct snd_pcm_runtime *runtime = substream->runtime;
 415        struct dummy_hrtimer_pcm *dpcm = runtime->private_data;
 416        u64 delta;
 417        u32 pos;
 418
 419        delta = ktime_us_delta(hrtimer_cb_get_time(&dpcm->timer),
 420                               dpcm->base_time);
 421        delta = div_u64(delta * runtime->rate + 999999, 1000000);
 422        div_u64_rem(delta, runtime->buffer_size, &pos);
 423        return pos;
 424}
 425
 426static int dummy_hrtimer_prepare(struct snd_pcm_substream *substream)
 427{
 428        struct snd_pcm_runtime *runtime = substream->runtime;
 429        struct dummy_hrtimer_pcm *dpcm = runtime->private_data;
 430        unsigned int period, rate;
 431        long sec;
 432        unsigned long nsecs;
 433
 434        dummy_hrtimer_sync(dpcm);
 435        period = runtime->period_size;
 436        rate = runtime->rate;
 437        sec = period / rate;
 438        period %= rate;
 439        nsecs = div_u64((u64)period * 1000000000UL + rate - 1, rate);
 440        dpcm->period_time = ktime_set(sec, nsecs);
 441
 442        return 0;
 443}
 444
 445static int dummy_hrtimer_create(struct snd_pcm_substream *substream)
 446{
 447        struct dummy_hrtimer_pcm *dpcm;
 448
 449        dpcm = kzalloc(sizeof(*dpcm), GFP_KERNEL);
 450        if (!dpcm)
 451                return -ENOMEM;
 452        substream->runtime->private_data = dpcm;
 453        hrtimer_init(&dpcm->timer, CLOCK_MONOTONIC, HRTIMER_MODE_REL_SOFT);
 454        dpcm->timer.function = dummy_hrtimer_callback;
 455        dpcm->substream = substream;
 456        atomic_set(&dpcm->running, 0);
 457        return 0;
 458}
 459
 460static void dummy_hrtimer_free(struct snd_pcm_substream *substream)
 461{
 462        struct dummy_hrtimer_pcm *dpcm = substream->runtime->private_data;
 463        dummy_hrtimer_sync(dpcm);
 464        kfree(dpcm);
 465}
 466
 467static const struct dummy_timer_ops dummy_hrtimer_ops = {
 468        .create =       dummy_hrtimer_create,
 469        .free =         dummy_hrtimer_free,
 470        .prepare =      dummy_hrtimer_prepare,
 471        .start =        dummy_hrtimer_start,
 472        .stop =         dummy_hrtimer_stop,
 473        .pointer =      dummy_hrtimer_pointer,
 474};
 475
 476#endif /* CONFIG_HIGH_RES_TIMERS */
 477
 478/*
 479 * PCM interface
 480 */
 481
 482static int dummy_pcm_trigger(struct snd_pcm_substream *substream, int cmd)
 483{
 484        switch (cmd) {
 485        case SNDRV_PCM_TRIGGER_START:
 486        case SNDRV_PCM_TRIGGER_RESUME:
 487                return get_dummy_ops(substream)->start(substream);
 488        case SNDRV_PCM_TRIGGER_STOP:
 489        case SNDRV_PCM_TRIGGER_SUSPEND:
 490                return get_dummy_ops(substream)->stop(substream);
 491        }
 492        return -EINVAL;
 493}
 494
 495static int dummy_pcm_prepare(struct snd_pcm_substream *substream)
 496{
 497        return get_dummy_ops(substream)->prepare(substream);
 498}
 499
 500static snd_pcm_uframes_t dummy_pcm_pointer(struct snd_pcm_substream *substream)
 501{
 502        return get_dummy_ops(substream)->pointer(substream);
 503}
 504
 505static const struct snd_pcm_hardware dummy_pcm_hardware = {
 506        .info =                 (SNDRV_PCM_INFO_MMAP |
 507                                 SNDRV_PCM_INFO_INTERLEAVED |
 508                                 SNDRV_PCM_INFO_RESUME |
 509                                 SNDRV_PCM_INFO_MMAP_VALID),
 510        .formats =              USE_FORMATS,
 511        .rates =                USE_RATE,
 512        .rate_min =             USE_RATE_MIN,
 513        .rate_max =             USE_RATE_MAX,
 514        .channels_min =         USE_CHANNELS_MIN,
 515        .channels_max =         USE_CHANNELS_MAX,
 516        .buffer_bytes_max =     MAX_BUFFER_SIZE,
 517        .period_bytes_min =     MIN_PERIOD_SIZE,
 518        .period_bytes_max =     MAX_PERIOD_SIZE,
 519        .periods_min =          USE_PERIODS_MIN,
 520        .periods_max =          USE_PERIODS_MAX,
 521        .fifo_size =            0,
 522};
 523
 524static int dummy_pcm_hw_params(struct snd_pcm_substream *substream,
 525                               struct snd_pcm_hw_params *hw_params)
 526{
 527        if (fake_buffer) {
 528                /* runtime->dma_bytes has to be set manually to allow mmap */
 529                substream->runtime->dma_bytes = params_buffer_bytes(hw_params);
 530                return 0;
 531        }
 532        return snd_pcm_lib_malloc_pages(substream,
 533                                        params_buffer_bytes(hw_params));
 534}
 535
 536static int dummy_pcm_hw_free(struct snd_pcm_substream *substream)
 537{
 538        if (fake_buffer)
 539                return 0;
 540        return snd_pcm_lib_free_pages(substream);
 541}
 542
 543static int dummy_pcm_open(struct snd_pcm_substream *substream)
 544{
 545        struct snd_dummy *dummy = snd_pcm_substream_chip(substream);
 546        struct dummy_model *model = dummy->model;
 547        struct snd_pcm_runtime *runtime = substream->runtime;
 548        const struct dummy_timer_ops *ops;
 549        int err;
 550
 551        ops = &dummy_systimer_ops;
 552#ifdef CONFIG_HIGH_RES_TIMERS
 553        if (hrtimer)
 554                ops = &dummy_hrtimer_ops;
 555#endif
 556
 557        err = ops->create(substream);
 558        if (err < 0)
 559                return err;
 560        get_dummy_ops(substream) = ops;
 561
 562        runtime->hw = dummy->pcm_hw;
 563        if (substream->pcm->device & 1) {
 564                runtime->hw.info &= ~SNDRV_PCM_INFO_INTERLEAVED;
 565                runtime->hw.info |= SNDRV_PCM_INFO_NONINTERLEAVED;
 566        }
 567        if (substream->pcm->device & 2)
 568                runtime->hw.info &= ~(SNDRV_PCM_INFO_MMAP |
 569                                      SNDRV_PCM_INFO_MMAP_VALID);
 570
 571        if (model == NULL)
 572                return 0;
 573
 574        if (substream->stream == SNDRV_PCM_STREAM_PLAYBACK) {
 575                if (model->playback_constraints)
 576                        err = model->playback_constraints(substream->runtime);
 577        } else {
 578                if (model->capture_constraints)
 579                        err = model->capture_constraints(substream->runtime);
 580        }
 581        if (err < 0) {
 582                get_dummy_ops(substream)->free(substream);
 583                return err;
 584        }
 585        return 0;
 586}
 587
 588static int dummy_pcm_close(struct snd_pcm_substream *substream)
 589{
 590        get_dummy_ops(substream)->free(substream);
 591        return 0;
 592}
 593
 594/*
 595 * dummy buffer handling
 596 */
 597
 598static void *dummy_page[2];
 599
 600static void free_fake_buffer(void)
 601{
 602        if (fake_buffer) {
 603                int i;
 604                for (i = 0; i < 2; i++)
 605                        if (dummy_page[i]) {
 606                                free_page((unsigned long)dummy_page[i]);
 607                                dummy_page[i] = NULL;
 608                        }
 609        }
 610}
 611
 612static int alloc_fake_buffer(void)
 613{
 614        int i;
 615
 616        if (!fake_buffer)
 617                return 0;
 618        for (i = 0; i < 2; i++) {
 619                dummy_page[i] = (void *)get_zeroed_page(GFP_KERNEL);
 620                if (!dummy_page[i]) {
 621                        free_fake_buffer();
 622                        return -ENOMEM;
 623                }
 624        }
 625        return 0;
 626}
 627
 628static int dummy_pcm_copy(struct snd_pcm_substream *substream,
 629                          int channel, unsigned long pos,
 630                          void __user *dst, unsigned long bytes)
 631{
 632        return 0; /* do nothing */
 633}
 634
 635static int dummy_pcm_copy_kernel(struct snd_pcm_substream *substream,
 636                                 int channel, unsigned long pos,
 637                                 void *dst, unsigned long bytes)
 638{
 639        return 0; /* do nothing */
 640}
 641
 642static int dummy_pcm_silence(struct snd_pcm_substream *substream,
 643                             int channel, unsigned long pos,
 644                             unsigned long bytes)
 645{
 646        return 0; /* do nothing */
 647}
 648
 649static struct page *dummy_pcm_page(struct snd_pcm_substream *substream,
 650                                   unsigned long offset)
 651{
 652        return virt_to_page(dummy_page[substream->stream]); /* the same page */
 653}
 654
 655static struct snd_pcm_ops dummy_pcm_ops = {
 656        .open =         dummy_pcm_open,
 657        .close =        dummy_pcm_close,
 658        .ioctl =        snd_pcm_lib_ioctl,
 659        .hw_params =    dummy_pcm_hw_params,
 660        .hw_free =      dummy_pcm_hw_free,
 661        .prepare =      dummy_pcm_prepare,
 662        .trigger =      dummy_pcm_trigger,
 663        .pointer =      dummy_pcm_pointer,
 664};
 665
 666static struct snd_pcm_ops dummy_pcm_ops_no_buf = {
 667        .open =         dummy_pcm_open,
 668        .close =        dummy_pcm_close,
 669        .ioctl =        snd_pcm_lib_ioctl,
 670        .hw_params =    dummy_pcm_hw_params,
 671        .hw_free =      dummy_pcm_hw_free,
 672        .prepare =      dummy_pcm_prepare,
 673        .trigger =      dummy_pcm_trigger,
 674        .pointer =      dummy_pcm_pointer,
 675        .copy_user =    dummy_pcm_copy,
 676        .copy_kernel =  dummy_pcm_copy_kernel,
 677        .fill_silence = dummy_pcm_silence,
 678        .page =         dummy_pcm_page,
 679};
 680
 681static int snd_card_dummy_pcm(struct snd_dummy *dummy, int device,
 682                              int substreams)
 683{
 684        struct snd_pcm *pcm;
 685        struct snd_pcm_ops *ops;
 686        int err;
 687
 688        err = snd_pcm_new(dummy->card, "Dummy PCM", device,
 689                               substreams, substreams, &pcm);
 690        if (err < 0)
 691                return err;
 692        dummy->pcm = pcm;
 693        if (fake_buffer)
 694                ops = &dummy_pcm_ops_no_buf;
 695        else
 696                ops = &dummy_pcm_ops;
 697        snd_pcm_set_ops(pcm, SNDRV_PCM_STREAM_PLAYBACK, ops);
 698        snd_pcm_set_ops(pcm, SNDRV_PCM_STREAM_CAPTURE, ops);
 699        pcm->private_data = dummy;
 700        pcm->info_flags = 0;
 701        strcpy(pcm->name, "Dummy PCM");
 702        if (!fake_buffer) {
 703                snd_pcm_lib_preallocate_pages_for_all(pcm,
 704                        SNDRV_DMA_TYPE_CONTINUOUS,
 705                        snd_dma_continuous_data(GFP_KERNEL),
 706                        0, 64*1024);
 707        }
 708        return 0;
 709}
 710
 711/*
 712 * mixer interface
 713 */
 714
 715#define DUMMY_VOLUME(xname, xindex, addr) \
 716{ .iface = SNDRV_CTL_ELEM_IFACE_MIXER, \
 717  .access = SNDRV_CTL_ELEM_ACCESS_READWRITE | SNDRV_CTL_ELEM_ACCESS_TLV_READ, \
 718  .name = xname, .index = xindex, \
 719  .info = snd_dummy_volume_info, \
 720  .get = snd_dummy_volume_get, .put = snd_dummy_volume_put, \
 721  .private_value = addr, \
 722  .tlv = { .p = db_scale_dummy } }
 723
 724static int snd_dummy_volume_info(struct snd_kcontrol *kcontrol,
 725                                 struct snd_ctl_elem_info *uinfo)
 726{
 727        uinfo->type = SNDRV_CTL_ELEM_TYPE_INTEGER;
 728        uinfo->count = 2;
 729        uinfo->value.integer.min = -50;
 730        uinfo->value.integer.max = 100;
 731        return 0;
 732}
 733 
 734static int snd_dummy_volume_get(struct snd_kcontrol *kcontrol,
 735                                struct snd_ctl_elem_value *ucontrol)
 736{
 737        struct snd_dummy *dummy = snd_kcontrol_chip(kcontrol);
 738        int addr = kcontrol->private_value;
 739
 740        spin_lock_irq(&dummy->mixer_lock);
 741        ucontrol->value.integer.value[0] = dummy->mixer_volume[addr][0];
 742        ucontrol->value.integer.value[1] = dummy->mixer_volume[addr][1];
 743        spin_unlock_irq(&dummy->mixer_lock);
 744        return 0;
 745}
 746
 747static int snd_dummy_volume_put(struct snd_kcontrol *kcontrol,
 748                                struct snd_ctl_elem_value *ucontrol)
 749{
 750        struct snd_dummy *dummy = snd_kcontrol_chip(kcontrol);
 751        int change, addr = kcontrol->private_value;
 752        int left, right;
 753
 754        left = ucontrol->value.integer.value[0];
 755        if (left < -50)
 756                left = -50;
 757        if (left > 100)
 758                left = 100;
 759        right = ucontrol->value.integer.value[1];
 760        if (right < -50)
 761                right = -50;
 762        if (right > 100)
 763                right = 100;
 764        spin_lock_irq(&dummy->mixer_lock);
 765        change = dummy->mixer_volume[addr][0] != left ||
 766                 dummy->mixer_volume[addr][1] != right;
 767        dummy->mixer_volume[addr][0] = left;
 768        dummy->mixer_volume[addr][1] = right;
 769        spin_unlock_irq(&dummy->mixer_lock);
 770        return change;
 771}
 772
 773static const DECLARE_TLV_DB_SCALE(db_scale_dummy, -4500, 30, 0);
 774
 775#define DUMMY_CAPSRC(xname, xindex, addr) \
 776{ .iface = SNDRV_CTL_ELEM_IFACE_MIXER, .name = xname, .index = xindex, \
 777  .info = snd_dummy_capsrc_info, \
 778  .get = snd_dummy_capsrc_get, .put = snd_dummy_capsrc_put, \
 779  .private_value = addr }
 780
 781#define snd_dummy_capsrc_info   snd_ctl_boolean_stereo_info
 782 
 783static int snd_dummy_capsrc_get(struct snd_kcontrol *kcontrol,
 784                                struct snd_ctl_elem_value *ucontrol)
 785{
 786        struct snd_dummy *dummy = snd_kcontrol_chip(kcontrol);
 787        int addr = kcontrol->private_value;
 788
 789        spin_lock_irq(&dummy->mixer_lock);
 790        ucontrol->value.integer.value[0] = dummy->capture_source[addr][0];
 791        ucontrol->value.integer.value[1] = dummy->capture_source[addr][1];
 792        spin_unlock_irq(&dummy->mixer_lock);
 793        return 0;
 794}
 795
 796static int snd_dummy_capsrc_put(struct snd_kcontrol *kcontrol, struct snd_ctl_elem_value *ucontrol)
 797{
 798        struct snd_dummy *dummy = snd_kcontrol_chip(kcontrol);
 799        int change, addr = kcontrol->private_value;
 800        int left, right;
 801
 802        left = ucontrol->value.integer.value[0] & 1;
 803        right = ucontrol->value.integer.value[1] & 1;
 804        spin_lock_irq(&dummy->mixer_lock);
 805        change = dummy->capture_source[addr][0] != left &&
 806                 dummy->capture_source[addr][1] != right;
 807        dummy->capture_source[addr][0] = left;
 808        dummy->capture_source[addr][1] = right;
 809        spin_unlock_irq(&dummy->mixer_lock);
 810        return change;
 811}
 812
 813static int snd_dummy_iobox_info(struct snd_kcontrol *kcontrol,
 814                                struct snd_ctl_elem_info *info)
 815{
 816        static const char *const names[] = { "None", "CD Player" };
 817
 818        return snd_ctl_enum_info(info, 1, 2, names);
 819}
 820
 821static int snd_dummy_iobox_get(struct snd_kcontrol *kcontrol,
 822                               struct snd_ctl_elem_value *value)
 823{
 824        struct snd_dummy *dummy = snd_kcontrol_chip(kcontrol);
 825
 826        value->value.enumerated.item[0] = dummy->iobox;
 827        return 0;
 828}
 829
 830static int snd_dummy_iobox_put(struct snd_kcontrol *kcontrol,
 831                               struct snd_ctl_elem_value *value)
 832{
 833        struct snd_dummy *dummy = snd_kcontrol_chip(kcontrol);
 834        int changed;
 835
 836        if (value->value.enumerated.item[0] > 1)
 837                return -EINVAL;
 838
 839        changed = value->value.enumerated.item[0] != dummy->iobox;
 840        if (changed) {
 841                dummy->iobox = value->value.enumerated.item[0];
 842
 843                if (dummy->iobox) {
 844                        dummy->cd_volume_ctl->vd[0].access &=
 845                                ~SNDRV_CTL_ELEM_ACCESS_INACTIVE;
 846                        dummy->cd_switch_ctl->vd[0].access &=
 847                                ~SNDRV_CTL_ELEM_ACCESS_INACTIVE;
 848                } else {
 849                        dummy->cd_volume_ctl->vd[0].access |=
 850                                SNDRV_CTL_ELEM_ACCESS_INACTIVE;
 851                        dummy->cd_switch_ctl->vd[0].access |=
 852                                SNDRV_CTL_ELEM_ACCESS_INACTIVE;
 853                }
 854
 855                snd_ctl_notify(dummy->card, SNDRV_CTL_EVENT_MASK_INFO,
 856                               &dummy->cd_volume_ctl->id);
 857                snd_ctl_notify(dummy->card, SNDRV_CTL_EVENT_MASK_INFO,
 858                               &dummy->cd_switch_ctl->id);
 859        }
 860
 861        return changed;
 862}
 863
 864static struct snd_kcontrol_new snd_dummy_controls[] = {
 865DUMMY_VOLUME("Master Volume", 0, MIXER_ADDR_MASTER),
 866DUMMY_CAPSRC("Master Capture Switch", 0, MIXER_ADDR_MASTER),
 867DUMMY_VOLUME("Synth Volume", 0, MIXER_ADDR_SYNTH),
 868DUMMY_CAPSRC("Synth Capture Switch", 0, MIXER_ADDR_SYNTH),
 869DUMMY_VOLUME("Line Volume", 0, MIXER_ADDR_LINE),
 870DUMMY_CAPSRC("Line Capture Switch", 0, MIXER_ADDR_LINE),
 871DUMMY_VOLUME("Mic Volume", 0, MIXER_ADDR_MIC),
 872DUMMY_CAPSRC("Mic Capture Switch", 0, MIXER_ADDR_MIC),
 873DUMMY_VOLUME("CD Volume", 0, MIXER_ADDR_CD),
 874DUMMY_CAPSRC("CD Capture Switch", 0, MIXER_ADDR_CD),
 875{
 876        .iface = SNDRV_CTL_ELEM_IFACE_MIXER,
 877        .name  = "External I/O Box",
 878        .info  = snd_dummy_iobox_info,
 879        .get   = snd_dummy_iobox_get,
 880        .put   = snd_dummy_iobox_put,
 881},
 882};
 883
 884static int snd_card_dummy_new_mixer(struct snd_dummy *dummy)
 885{
 886        struct snd_card *card = dummy->card;
 887        struct snd_kcontrol *kcontrol;
 888        unsigned int idx;
 889        int err;
 890
 891        spin_lock_init(&dummy->mixer_lock);
 892        strcpy(card->mixername, "Dummy Mixer");
 893        dummy->iobox = 1;
 894
 895        for (idx = 0; idx < ARRAY_SIZE(snd_dummy_controls); idx++) {
 896                kcontrol = snd_ctl_new1(&snd_dummy_controls[idx], dummy);
 897                err = snd_ctl_add(card, kcontrol);
 898                if (err < 0)
 899                        return err;
 900                if (!strcmp(kcontrol->id.name, "CD Volume"))
 901                        dummy->cd_volume_ctl = kcontrol;
 902                else if (!strcmp(kcontrol->id.name, "CD Capture Switch"))
 903                        dummy->cd_switch_ctl = kcontrol;
 904
 905        }
 906        return 0;
 907}
 908
 909#if defined(CONFIG_SND_DEBUG) && defined(CONFIG_SND_PROC_FS)
 910/*
 911 * proc interface
 912 */
 913static void print_formats(struct snd_dummy *dummy,
 914                          struct snd_info_buffer *buffer)
 915{
 916        int i;
 917
 918        for (i = 0; i < SNDRV_PCM_FORMAT_LAST; i++) {
 919                if (dummy->pcm_hw.formats & (1ULL << i))
 920                        snd_iprintf(buffer, " %s", snd_pcm_format_name(i));
 921        }
 922}
 923
 924static void print_rates(struct snd_dummy *dummy,
 925                        struct snd_info_buffer *buffer)
 926{
 927        static int rates[] = {
 928                5512, 8000, 11025, 16000, 22050, 32000, 44100, 48000,
 929                64000, 88200, 96000, 176400, 192000,
 930        };
 931        int i;
 932
 933        if (dummy->pcm_hw.rates & SNDRV_PCM_RATE_CONTINUOUS)
 934                snd_iprintf(buffer, " continuous");
 935        if (dummy->pcm_hw.rates & SNDRV_PCM_RATE_KNOT)
 936                snd_iprintf(buffer, " knot");
 937        for (i = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE(rates); i++)
 938                if (dummy->pcm_hw.rates & (1 << i))
 939                        snd_iprintf(buffer, " %d", rates[i]);
 940}
 941
 942#define get_dummy_int_ptr(dummy, ofs) \
 943        (unsigned int *)((char *)&((dummy)->pcm_hw) + (ofs))
 944#define get_dummy_ll_ptr(dummy, ofs) \
 945        (unsigned long long *)((char *)&((dummy)->pcm_hw) + (ofs))
 946
 947struct dummy_hw_field {
 948        const char *name;
 949        const char *format;
 950        unsigned int offset;
 951        unsigned int size;
 952};
 953#define FIELD_ENTRY(item, fmt) {                   \
 954        .name = #item,                             \
 955        .format = fmt,                             \
 956        .offset = offsetof(struct snd_pcm_hardware, item), \
 957        .size = sizeof(dummy_pcm_hardware.item) }
 958
 959static struct dummy_hw_field fields[] = {
 960        FIELD_ENTRY(formats, "%#llx"),
 961        FIELD_ENTRY(rates, "%#x"),
 962        FIELD_ENTRY(rate_min, "%d"),
 963        FIELD_ENTRY(rate_max, "%d"),
 964        FIELD_ENTRY(channels_min, "%d"),
 965        FIELD_ENTRY(channels_max, "%d"),
 966        FIELD_ENTRY(buffer_bytes_max, "%ld"),
 967        FIELD_ENTRY(period_bytes_min, "%ld"),
 968        FIELD_ENTRY(period_bytes_max, "%ld"),
 969        FIELD_ENTRY(periods_min, "%d"),
 970        FIELD_ENTRY(periods_max, "%d"),
 971};
 972
 973static void dummy_proc_read(struct snd_info_entry *entry,
 974                            struct snd_info_buffer *buffer)
 975{
 976        struct snd_dummy *dummy = entry->private_data;
 977        int i;
 978
 979        for (i = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE(fields); i++) {
 980                snd_iprintf(buffer, "%s ", fields[i].name);
 981                if (fields[i].size == sizeof(int))
 982                        snd_iprintf(buffer, fields[i].format,
 983                                *get_dummy_int_ptr(dummy, fields[i].offset));
 984                else
 985                        snd_iprintf(buffer, fields[i].format,
 986                                *get_dummy_ll_ptr(dummy, fields[i].offset));
 987                if (!strcmp(fields[i].name, "formats"))
 988                        print_formats(dummy, buffer);
 989                else if (!strcmp(fields[i].name, "rates"))
 990                        print_rates(dummy, buffer);
 991                snd_iprintf(buffer, "\n");
 992        }
 993}
 994
 995static void dummy_proc_write(struct snd_info_entry *entry,
 996                             struct snd_info_buffer *buffer)
 997{
 998        struct snd_dummy *dummy = entry->private_data;
 999        char line[64];
1000
1001        while (!snd_info_get_line(buffer, line, sizeof(line))) {
1002                char item[20];
1003                const char *ptr;
1004                unsigned long long val;
1005                int i;
1006
1007                ptr = snd_info_get_str(item, line, sizeof(item));
1008                for (i = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE(fields); i++) {
1009                        if (!strcmp(item, fields[i].name))
1010                                break;
1011                }
1012                if (i >= ARRAY_SIZE(fields))
1013                        continue;
1014                snd_info_get_str(item, ptr, sizeof(item));
1015                if (kstrtoull(item, 0, &val))
1016                        continue;
1017                if (fields[i].size == sizeof(int))
1018                        *get_dummy_int_ptr(dummy, fields[i].offset) = val;
1019                else
1020                        *get_dummy_ll_ptr(dummy, fields[i].offset) = val;
1021        }
1022}
1023
1024static void dummy_proc_init(struct snd_dummy *chip)
1025{
1026        snd_card_rw_proc_new(chip->card, "dummy_pcm", chip,
1027                             dummy_proc_read, dummy_proc_write);
1028}
1029#else
1030#define dummy_proc_init(x)
1031#endif /* CONFIG_SND_DEBUG && CONFIG_SND_PROC_FS */
1032
1033static int snd_dummy_probe(struct platform_device *devptr)
1034{
1035        struct snd_card *card;
1036        struct snd_dummy *dummy;
1037        struct dummy_model *m = NULL, **mdl;
1038        int idx, err;
1039        int dev = devptr->id;
1040
1041        err = snd_card_new(&devptr->dev, index[dev], id[dev], THIS_MODULE,
1042                           sizeof(struct snd_dummy), &card);
1043        if (err < 0)
1044                return err;
1045        dummy = card->private_data;
1046        dummy->card = card;
1047        for (mdl = dummy_models; *mdl && model[dev]; mdl++) {
1048                if (strcmp(model[dev], (*mdl)->name) == 0) {
1049                        printk(KERN_INFO
1050                                "snd-dummy: Using model '%s' for card %i\n",
1051                                (*mdl)->name, card->number);
1052                        m = dummy->model = *mdl;
1053                        break;
1054                }
1055        }
1056        for (idx = 0; idx < MAX_PCM_DEVICES && idx < pcm_devs[dev]; idx++) {
1057                if (pcm_substreams[dev] < 1)
1058                        pcm_substreams[dev] = 1;
1059                if (pcm_substreams[dev] > MAX_PCM_SUBSTREAMS)
1060                        pcm_substreams[dev] = MAX_PCM_SUBSTREAMS;
1061                err = snd_card_dummy_pcm(dummy, idx, pcm_substreams[dev]);
1062                if (err < 0)
1063                        goto __nodev;
1064        }
1065
1066        dummy->pcm_hw = dummy_pcm_hardware;
1067        if (m) {
1068                if (m->formats)
1069                        dummy->pcm_hw.formats = m->formats;
1070                if (m->buffer_bytes_max)
1071                        dummy->pcm_hw.buffer_bytes_max = m->buffer_bytes_max;
1072                if (m->period_bytes_min)
1073                        dummy->pcm_hw.period_bytes_min = m->period_bytes_min;
1074                if (m->period_bytes_max)
1075                        dummy->pcm_hw.period_bytes_max = m->period_bytes_max;
1076                if (m->periods_min)
1077                        dummy->pcm_hw.periods_min = m->periods_min;
1078                if (m->periods_max)
1079                        dummy->pcm_hw.periods_max = m->periods_max;
1080                if (m->rates)
1081                        dummy->pcm_hw.rates = m->rates;
1082                if (m->rate_min)
1083                        dummy->pcm_hw.rate_min = m->rate_min;
1084                if (m->rate_max)
1085                        dummy->pcm_hw.rate_max = m->rate_max;
1086                if (m->channels_min)
1087                        dummy->pcm_hw.channels_min = m->channels_min;
1088                if (m->channels_max)
1089                        dummy->pcm_hw.channels_max = m->channels_max;
1090        }
1091
1092        err = snd_card_dummy_new_mixer(dummy);
1093        if (err < 0)
1094                goto __nodev;
1095        strcpy(card->driver, "Dummy");
1096        strcpy(card->shortname, "Dummy");
1097        sprintf(card->longname, "Dummy %i", dev + 1);
1098
1099        dummy_proc_init(dummy);
1100
1101        err = snd_card_register(card);
1102        if (err == 0) {
1103                platform_set_drvdata(devptr, card);
1104                return 0;
1105        }
1106      __nodev:
1107        snd_card_free(card);
1108        return err;
1109}
1110
1111static int snd_dummy_remove(struct platform_device *devptr)
1112{
1113        snd_card_free(platform_get_drvdata(devptr));
1114        return 0;
1115}
1116
1117#ifdef CONFIG_PM_SLEEP
1118static int snd_dummy_suspend(struct device *pdev)
1119{
1120        struct snd_card *card = dev_get_drvdata(pdev);
1121
1122        snd_power_change_state(card, SNDRV_CTL_POWER_D3hot);
1123        return 0;
1124}
1125        
1126static int snd_dummy_resume(struct device *pdev)
1127{
1128        struct snd_card *card = dev_get_drvdata(pdev);
1129
1130        snd_power_change_state(card, SNDRV_CTL_POWER_D0);
1131        return 0;
1132}
1133
1134static SIMPLE_DEV_PM_OPS(snd_dummy_pm, snd_dummy_suspend, snd_dummy_resume);
1135#define SND_DUMMY_PM_OPS        &snd_dummy_pm
1136#else
1137#define SND_DUMMY_PM_OPS        NULL
1138#endif
1139
1140#define SND_DUMMY_DRIVER        "snd_dummy"
1141
1142static struct platform_driver snd_dummy_driver = {
1143        .probe          = snd_dummy_probe,
1144        .remove         = snd_dummy_remove,
1145        .driver         = {
1146                .name   = SND_DUMMY_DRIVER,
1147                .pm     = SND_DUMMY_PM_OPS,
1148        },
1149};
1150
1151static void snd_dummy_unregister_all(void)
1152{
1153        int i;
1154
1155        for (i = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE(devices); ++i)
1156                platform_device_unregister(devices[i]);
1157        platform_driver_unregister(&snd_dummy_driver);
1158        free_fake_buffer();
1159}
1160
1161static int __init alsa_card_dummy_init(void)
1162{
1163        int i, cards, err;
1164
1165        err = platform_driver_register(&snd_dummy_driver);
1166        if (err < 0)
1167                return err;
1168
1169        err = alloc_fake_buffer();
1170        if (err < 0) {
1171                platform_driver_unregister(&snd_dummy_driver);
1172                return err;
1173        }
1174
1175        cards = 0;
1176        for (i = 0; i < SNDRV_CARDS; i++) {
1177                struct platform_device *device;
1178                if (! enable[i])
1179                        continue;
1180                device = platform_device_register_simple(SND_DUMMY_DRIVER,
1181                                                         i, NULL, 0);
1182                if (IS_ERR(device))
1183                        continue;
1184                if (!platform_get_drvdata(device)) {
1185                        platform_device_unregister(device);
1186                        continue;
1187                }
1188                devices[i] = device;
1189                cards++;
1190        }
1191        if (!cards) {
1192#ifdef MODULE
1193                printk(KERN_ERR "Dummy soundcard not found or device busy\n");
1194#endif
1195                snd_dummy_unregister_all();
1196                return -ENODEV;
1197        }
1198        return 0;
1199}
1200
1201static void __exit alsa_card_dummy_exit(void)
1202{
1203        snd_dummy_unregister_all();
1204}
1205
1206module_init(alsa_card_dummy_init)
1207module_exit(alsa_card_dummy_exit)
1208