1<html><head><title>toybox news</title>
   2<!--#include file="header.html" -->
   4<p>Toybox combines common Linux command line utilities together
   5into a single BSD-licensed executable that's simple, small, fast,
   6reasonably standards-compliant, and powerful enough to turn Android into
   7a development environment. See the links on the left for details.</p>
  11<a name="21-05-2019" /><a href="#21-05-2019"><hr><h2><b>May 21, 2019</b></h2></a>
  13<p>"I like the cover," he said. "'Don't Panic.' It's the first helpful or intelligible thing anybody's said to me all day."</p> <p>- The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy</p>
  16<p><a href=downloads/toybox-0.8.1.tar.gz>Toybox 0.8.1</a>
  17(<a href=>git commit</a>)
  18is out.</p>
  20<p>Android is now using toybox as part of a <a href=>"hermetic" build</a>
  21(meaning Android is building under toybox, which is halfway to Android
  22building under Android). See Android's <a href=>build-tools</a> and <a href=>soong</a> repositories to follow along with development, or check the list for the <a href=>current status</a>.</p>
  24<p><u>New commands</u>: Isaac Dunham added <b>mcookie</b>, which is used by
  25X11. Elliott Hughes added <b>devmem</b>, which replaces toolbox's "r".</p>
  27<p><u>Promoted</u>: <b>tar</b>, <b>gunzip</b>, and <b>zcat</b> were cleaned
  28up and moved out of pending.
  29Tar is a near-rewrite with support for --owner --group and --sparse,
  30capable of autodetecting "wget blah.tar.bz2 -O - | tar xv", a --restrict option
  31that only allows files to extract into a single subdirectory, and so on.</p>
  33<p><u>Added to pending</u>:
  34Jarno Mäkipää contributed a new <b>vi</b> implementation. Makepost added
  37<p><u>Updates</u>: Elliott added <b>find</b> -wholename/-iwholename, -printf,
  38and -context, <b>grep</b> --exclude-dir, and <b>echo</b> -E.
  39Rob added <b>blkid</b> -U and -L, <b>mount</b> now has UUID= support via blkid -U,
  40you can now specify TZ="blah" in the <b>date</b> -d input string (although
  41why the double quotes are required is an open question), and <b>sed</b> now
  42understands ,+N relative ranges. Makepost added <b>rm</b> -v.
  43The human_readable fields in <b>ps</b>/<b>top</b>/<b>iotop</b> now use all
  44available space to show more precision, <b>iotop</b> displays swap bandwidth
  45properly (it was showing a signed field as unsigned), and
  46<b>touch</b> -t and -d autodetect the time format.</p>
  48<p><u>Cleanups</u>: In pending Rob did some bc cleanup,
  49Colin Davidson did some arp cleanup, 
  50Uros Prestor fixed route argument parsing, and
  51in bc Daniel Rosenberg fixed bc_vec_concat()'s allocation and
  52Gavin Howard fixed an overflow bug in bc_num_ulong().</p>
  54<p>Elliott made scan_key() detect cursor keys and such with several more
  55terminal types, made more better about directories and non-tty output,
  56cleaned up inconsistent uses of ARRAY_LEN(), taught file
  57to recognize a c-sky ELF machine, and fixed timezone and daylight
  58savings time issues in date and its tests.
  59Rob simplified netcat and ping using new lib/net.c infrastructure.
  60When run as non-PID 1 (for a chroot) oneit's exit code now indicates
  61which signal it's exiting due to.
  62Hadrian Węgrzynowski #defined constants for mkpathat.
  63Date now uses the current time for unspecified fields (instead of zeroing
  64them), and should set the weekday properly.
  65Sort's -k2.3,4.5 syntax is now documented and behaves more closely to
  66other implementations (silly as that behavior is).
  67Significant speedup to sed s/a/b/g on a megabyte long line (it was
  68O(n^2) and now it's quite snappy).</p>
  70<p>Several cases of warning about stdout failing to write were silenced
  71because things like piping the output to head means stdout is a special
  72case: its output is often discarded and that's fine. And xprintf()
  73and friends only checks stdout for errors so it can exit early ("yes | head"
  74should not spin endlessly) without actually flushing anything.
  75There's an ongoing design debate about line buffering stdin and stdout
  76that'll have to be resolved next dev cycle.</p>
  79Elliott sent in a lot of fixes for building AOSP with toybox:
  80support for more date formats, sed substitution of empty capture groups
  81and an endless loop with -EPIPE, fixed find -path/-ipath, made loggit()
  82only feed LOG_AUTH to syslog when we have a tty, gave grep a bunch
  83of --longname synonyms for short options, added getfattr --only-values,
  84and timeout --foreground --preserve-status and --signal.</p>
  86<p>Top got a lot of tweaks: it no longer collates thread's CPU usage into the
  87parent thread (in -H mode), hides the cursor in interactive mode, updates the
  88display properly in batch mode, and accepts ENTER
  89as a synonym for SPACE when refreshing the display. The header lines
  90now abbreviate long numbers with units (via human_readable()),
  91more reliably spans the terminal width, and says "Thread" instead
  92of "Task" when it's showing threads. The task/thread count now adds up
  93(understanding more kernel states and treating unknown ones as "sleeping").
  94Top now treats -o "" as an error (previously it displayed an empty screen).</p>
  96<p>William Djupström pointed out login needs to chown() the tty, and made it
  97clear the environment when -p is absent.
  98Vidar Holen fixed inverted find -exec exit status.
  99Rob made chgrp() stop relying on libc's printf("%s", NULL) printing "(null)"
 100because a <a href=>newly added gcc bug</a> turns that into a build break, and
 101fixed an outright embarassing xstrndup() bug.
 102Liwugang fixed a segfault when stat's format string had a trailing %.
 103A missing else in grep meant -x was sometimes ignored.</p>
 106in the build scripts/ now tests that the compiler it's trying
 107to use exists up front. We no longer link against librt because on glibc that's
 108pulling in libpthread for some unknown reason.</p>
 110<p>TOYFLAG_ARGFAIL() lets commands return custom exit values when option parsing
 111fails (because AOSP build scripts cared), so timeout --unknown returns 125
 112and so on: chroot, diff, cmp, env, grep, nohup, and sort also use it now with
 113various values.</p>
 115<p>New FLAG() macros: FLAG(x) expands to (toys.optflags&FLAG_x) and returns
 116zero if the command line argument's bit isn't set and nonzero if it is
 117(meaning -x was or wasn't encountered on the command line this time by
 118lib/args.c). Lots of commands got converted to use them.</p>
 120<p>New lib/env.c with reset_env(), xsetenv(), and xunsetenv() which frees
 121the old environment variable when it wasn't inherited from exec(). This
 122lets long-running loops reset environment variables without memory leaks.</p>
 124<p>New xnotify() plumbing in lib/portability.c with Linux and BSD versions
 125(which should also work on MacOS X).</p>
 127<p>New xparsedate() and xvali_date() functions allow date, tar --mtime, and
 128touch to understand the same date formats,
 129xpopen_both() now knows how to use existing filehandles for the child's
 130stdin/stdout, and no longer redirects stderr (which hides errors),
 131new nanomove(), nanodiff(), union socksaddr, xrecvwait(),
 132and human_readable_long() to show more than 3 digits of output.</p>
 134<p>Taught xgetaddrinfo() to return a wildcard address for a NULL host,
 135xconnbind() sets SO_REUSEADDR by default,
 136fileunderdir() returns the abspath to the file now (since we had to work
 137it out anyway), and
 138xabspath() uses O_PATH now (because Android's SELinux rules got more aggressive).</p>
 140<p>Several new xsendfile() variants, including sendfile_len() to copy
 141a specific amount of data and xsendfile_pad() to append zeroes to the
 142output when there isn't enough input.</p>
 144<p>regexec0() is now using libc's REG_STARTEND supported by every libc out
 145there _except_ musl. (It originated in BSD and was adopted by glibc, bionic,
 146and uClibc 15 years ago, and is also supported in macosx. Musl's maintainer
 147<a href=>turned down</a>
 148the feature request as an invalid use case he didn't think they should
 149be trying to do.)</p>
 152the <a href=license.html>license page</a> now has an SPDX identifier, and links to more
 153history/context. The actual LICENSE file had its title line removed
 154so <a href=>github could recognize it</a> as 0BSD. (We're still waiting for
 155"<a href=>a while</a>" to pass before github actually does, though.)</p>
 157<p>A new www/doc/mount.txt file describes how mount works under the covers.</p>
 159<p.Rob consistently misspelled "canonical" and "millisecond", mountpoint
 160has a synopsis now,
 161Kevin van der Kamp fixed a typo in netstat's help text, and Elliott
 162Hughes fixed typos everywhere and made the tense, capitalization, and
 163punctuation of help text more consistent.</p>
 165<p>New paragraph in the code style part of design.html explaining that
 166"char* a, b;" is not how C works, and since you wind up with "char *a, b;"
 167anyway you might as well say that.</p>
 169<p>Given dreamhost's tendency to repeatedly delete the mailing list
 170archive, the nav bar on the left links to a backup web archive now too.</p>
 172<p>The FAQ now says why we do time based releases.</p>
 174<p><u>Testing</u>: Added VERBOSE=nopass to not show passing tests.
 175The test suite now does an rm -rf on testdir between each command so
 176debris files don't accumulate.
 177New skipnot function skips the next test if a command line fails, and
 178toyonly function only runs command when we're testing the toybox version
 179of command. (This isn't the same as TEST_HOST, the host version could be
 181The find -newer test calls "sleep .1" to avoid intermittently failing with an
 182identical timestamp.
 183Elliott added the start of a file.test rogues gallery.
 184No longer call lsattr in "make tests" because the behavior differs by
 185filesystem and it needs fixing somehow.</p>
 187<a name="08-02-2019" /><a href="#08-02-2019"><hr><h2><b>February 8, 2019</b></h2></a>
 189<p>"Most readers get as far as the Future Semiconditionally Modified
 190Subinverted Plagal Past Subjunctive Intentional before giving up; and
 191in fact in later editions of the book all pages beyond this point have
 192been left blank to save on printing costs."</p>
 193<p>- The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy</p>
 196<p><a href=downloads/toybox-0.8.0.tar.gz>Toybox 0.8.0</a>
 197(<a href=>git commit</a>)
 198is out.</p>
 200<p>Toybox now builds on MacOS and FreeBSD, thanks to the efforts of Elliott
 201Hughes and Ed Maste respectively. Use the "make macos_defconfig" and "make
 202freebsd_defconfig" targets to enable the set of commands that compile on
 203each so far.</p>
 205<p><u>New commands</u>: Added an <b>sntp</b> client/server (RFC 4330 Simple Network Time
 206Protocol, a compatible subset of ntp). The <b>test</b> command was rewritten
 207and promoted out of pending.</p>
 209<p><u>New options</u>: <b>grep</b> now has --color, supports embedded NUL bytes in its input,
 210recognizes binary files, and passes all of grep.test (in case you
 211needed the middle numerical field of -bB, etc).
 212Josh Gao added ipv6 and UDP support to <b>netcat</b>.
 213Volodymyr Medvid reported that install -d doesn't honor -o or -g.
 214Elliott Hughes did a lot of work to support hermetic Android/AOSP builds:
 215<b>mkdir</b> accepts both --parent and --parents as synonyms for -p, <b>touch</b> ignores -f,
 216<b>basename</b> added -s to remove a trailing suffix, <b>dirname</b> now supports multiple
 217arguments, <b>cmp</b> accepts --quiet and --silent as synonyms for -s, <b>hostname</b>
 218added -sfd, <b>head</b> added --bytes as a synonym for -c and --lines as a synonym
 219for -n, <b>mktemp</b> added -t and fixed -u, <b>sed</b> added -z and -iEXT to keep backup files,
 220<b>md5sum</b> and sha1sum added --status and --check as synonyms -s and -c,
 221<b>readlink</b> added --canonicalize as a synonym for -f, <b>sort</b> grew -V,
 222<b>patch</b> added -s its synonym --quiet, <b>stat</b> added --format as
 223a synonym for -c, <b>xargs</b> added -p -t -r,
 224Eduardas Meile asked
 225that <b>umount</b> ignore -c. Reverend Homer added a small optimization to file.c,
 226and Elliott taught <b>file</b> to recognize riscv ELF binaries. Peter Collingbourne
 227taught <b>ls</b> -t to use the nanoseconds field.
 228<b>patch</b> has better support for patching a file with a tab in the name.</p>
 231<b>cp</b> --preserve was segfaulting when you didn't specify _what_ to
 232preserve (it now correctly defaults to "mot") and didn't get the permissions
 233right when copying a symlink's contents as a regular file,
 234<b>sort</b> -x didn't work when
 235attached to a key, <b>host</b> didn't allocate a big enough buffer for worst
 236case ipv6 address size, <b>sed</b> needed a ; between b and } when other
 237implementations don't (we're already well past what posix says but a script
 238out in the field broke...),
 239and several fixes to <b>hostname</b> in a container, <b>ps</b>/<b>top</b> were
 240misreading the VIRT and SHM fields.</p>
 242<p><u>Pending</u>: Gavin Howard updated <b>bc</b> and added more tests,
 243Marius Adaskevicius pointed out <b>mdev</b> -s should follow symlinks,
 244Yangchun Fu reported a <b>dhcp</b> checksum bug, <b>modprobe</b> needed errno reset
 245to avoid reporting spurious errors in verbose mode and no longer
 246exits with status 1 if it can't find /etc/modprobe.conf, the <b>more</b> command
 247wasn't always flushing stdout when it exited.</p>
 250<b>chrt</b> no longer #warns about the musl sched_get_priority_min() bug, but
 251instead works around it.
 252We were mixing setjmp/siglongjmp (harmless in some contexts but it kind
 253of annoyed FreeBSD), and
 254make install_airlock now adds sha256sum (because the Linux 4.20 build now
 255needs that for the s390x target).</p>
 257<p><u>Coding style</u>:
 258Rob converted the rest of the option GLOBALS() to the new single letter
 259coding style, and the new FLAG(x) macro is a slightly tidier way to say
 261Removed CFG_SORT_BIG (the sort command always
 262has the full functionality now. The general future direction or toybox
 263is to either have a command or not have it; multiple versions of the
 264same command aren't worth the complexity in testing, documentation,
 265or system adminstration).</p>
 267<p><u>Library code</u>:
 268The mkflags plumbing can now support arbitrary punctuation as option
 269names via an escape syntax (because mkfs.vfat specifies an offset with -@),
 270and lib/args.c now only sets FLAGS_NODASH when the first argument
 271didn't have a dash (allowing "ps ax" and "ps -ax" to behave differently).</p>
 273<p>Added an xrename() function,
 274xchdir() has better error reporting, xconnect()/xbind() had their
 275implementations merged, xsendto() moved from ping to lib, xpoll() now
 276measures elapsed time and only waits for the remaining period when restarted,
 277and Eduardas Meile converted several error_exit() to error_exit_raw() (because
 278yocto 2.6 buils with -Werror=format-security by default).</p>
 280<p>There's a scripts/ now which lets the build use gsed and gmake
 281(when available) in more places to avoid broken host versions on MacOS and FreeBSD.
 282The syntax of the "noreturn" attribute
 283changed slightly, some calls to strnstr() were replaced with strcasestr(),
 284we work around MacOS' lack of features.h, portability.h can now do Apple's
 285endianness macros, and so on.</p>
 287<p>Following the <a href=faq.html#support_horizon>seven year rule</a>
 288Elliott removed support or glibc 2.10, and also
 289reformatted a lot of --help text for consistency (removing trailing
 290periods and such).</p>
 292<p><u>Test suite</u>:
 293The test suite now has its own version of "pending", specifically "make tests"
 294skips test files without the executable bit set (unless you export $TEST_ALL).
 295This eliminates "expected failures" (I.E. files with unresolved todo items)
 296from the global regression test. Additional tests can be added to the global
 297regression test with chmod +x as the todo items they document get resolved.</p>
 299<p>Several places the test suite got fluffed out, including guards to skip
 300root-only tests when run as a normal user. The testcmd function prints the
 301short name instead of the full path to the command.
 302The tests for the test command
 303("test.test") no longer test the shell builtin but correctly test the
 304toybox command. (Now say that ten times fast.)</p>
 306<p>Bash version skew required replacing "continue" with "return" to stop
 307tests early in bash 4.4 (for VERBOSE=fail).</p>
 310<a name="31-10-2018" /><a href="#31-10-2018"><hr><h2><b>October 31, 2018</b></h2></a>
 312"In the beginning the Universe was created.
 313This has made a lot of people very angry and been widely regarded as a bad move." - The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy.
 317<p><a href=downloads/toybox-0.7.8.tar.gz>Toybox 0.7.8</a>
 318(<a href=>git commit</a>)
 319is out (a month late).</p>
 321<p>Toybox <a href=>now builds</a> with the Android NDK (r18 release), almost out of the box.
 322You have to add an "llvm-cc" symlink to "clang", then use CROSS_COMPILE=llvm-
 323with the appropriate $PATH (or absolute path in CROSS_COMPILE) for the
 324target you want to build for. (To run it on a non-android host, you probably
 325want "LDFLAGS=--static" too.)</p>
 327<p><u>New commands</u>: <b>i2cdetect</b>, <b>i2cdump</b>, <b>i2cget</b>, and <b>i2cset</b>
 328courtesy of Elliott/Android. The <b>watch</b> command got a complete (tty-aware)
 329rewrite, and was promoted out of pending. The <b>prlimit</b> command is back
 330(a configuration bug was always disabling it), and <b>ascii</b> now defaults y
 331in defconfig (an oversight).</p>
 333<p><u>New options</u>: 
 334The <b>ifconfig</b> command added -S (short view) giving one line of
 335information per interface, in "name ipv4/mask macaddr [ipv6/mask@type...]"
 336format. <b>grep</b> grew binary file detection, with -I and -a options to
 337ignore them or force treating them as ascii (really utf8).
 338Zach Van Rijn asked for <b>find -empty</b>.
 339In the <b>file</b> command, Elliott improved java
 340.class support and added .wav, .bmp, and android .dex.
 341Elliott also added "getconf -a" and a lot of missing getconf symbols the
 342AOSP build uses, including support for pathconf(3) symbols requiring two
 343arguments. This means getconf's arguments work more like ubuntu's
 344now (one or two arguments, not iterating through the supplied list and
 345processing each like last release), and -l grew section identifiers (so
 346the "getconf -l" output is no longer a directly consumable list of symbols
 347it takes).
 348Command line options specifying durations (like top -d or ping -i) can
 349now use fractions and units, like "1.5" and ".1m". See "toybox --help" for
 351Toybox now dereferences one layer of symlinks if it doesn't recognize the
 352name it's called under (so if you "ln -s $(which sleep) blah" and then
 353"./blah 30", it should figure out you mean sleep 30).</p>
 356Gavin Howard contributed a large new <b>bc</b> implementation to pending,
 357which covers everything the kernel build needs (and more) but is going to
 358take a while to review.
 359In <b>diff</b> the android guys added --color and timestamps on the
 360+++/--- lines. In <b>mdev</b> Faustas Azuolas Bagdonas added support
 361for mdev.conf's fourth field. Reverend Homer suggested an error message
 362improvement in <b>wget</b>, Kevin Spiteri did a cleanup pass on test.c,
 363and there was a cleanup pass on the passwd command.</p>
 366Elliott responded to a bug in <b>getconf</b>'s sed-based header generation by
 367replacing it with a more conventional array of #defined symbols, with #ifdefs
 368for missing symbols on the three libc implementations (glibc, bionic, musl)
 369we've tested so far. (This requires portability.h work to add new supported
 370build environments, but at least it works on bionic now.)
 371The <b>file</b> command now fails gracefully when reading pathologically
 372broken ELF files (the tests for integer overflow missed one), and
 373<b>date</b> no longer shows a meaningless errno when it can't parse the
 374date format.
 375Several fixes in <b>ping</b> (-w and -W didn't work, -c kept sending packets
 376while waiting for replies, and when no reply packets were received the summary
 377data was printed twice).
 378Elliott fixed <b>wc</b> column widths (traditional reality doesn't match
 379posix), fixed <b>modprobe</b>'s error handling (reported by Wen Xie), and
 380also fixed the units on blockdev --blkraget (reported by Martijn Coenen).
 381Several small fixes to the <b>stat</b> command's output (help text, quoting
 382style, leading zeroes, switch -f from %t to %T), <b>oneit</b> no longer
 383reboots the system when it's not called as PID 1.
 384Last release's commit letting $STRIP be redefined had a typo.
 385Nick Kralevich added an istty() check before calling TIOCGWINSZ (which
 386triggered Android's strict ioctl filtering on non-filesystem fifos).
 387An unstripped build (where the "strip" command fails for a given
 388CROSS_COMPILE) will now overwrite the (read-only) output file instead of
 389failing a rebuild. The dirtree plumbing no longer prints a "No" on front
 390of the filename in error messages (such as "permission denied").</p>
 393Elliott updated the roadmap with Android AOSP status, towards turning that
 394into a hermetic build (hopefully with an eventual self-hosting option, work
 395is <a href=b33d37d6f735>already underway</a> on the airlock step).
 396Rob added a little more context for LSB and described the move from Aboriginal
 397Linux to mkroot.
 398The <b>ps</b> help text changed: now "ps -o help" shows the fields and the normal
 399--help is much more manageable. Ifconfig's --help text also got tidied up.
 400Our LICENSE file has the SPDX identifier (0BSD) now, and the note about
 401the kconfig/ subdirectory still having (build only, non-shipping) GPL code
 402in it moved into the kconfig subdirectory.</p>
 404<p><u>Coding style change:</u>
 405GLOBALS() now uses the argument letter as the variable
 406name for variables automatically set by command line arguments via lib/args.c,
 407and no longer requires they be one per line.
 408Removed use of the gcc
 409\e extension in string constants, replacing it with \033.</p>
 411<p><u>Library code:</u>
 412lib/interestingtimes.c was renamed to lib/tty.c.
 413The deflate code from toys/pending/compress.c moved to lib/deflate.c,
 414which gunzip.c now uses when it's not configured to use zlib. (This reduces
 415the bootstrap dependencies for the "airlock" step of a hermetic build.)
 416The compression side remains a todo item.
 417Added "%" to lib/args.c reading seconds (including fractions/units) into a
 418long milliseconds argument. Redid xparsetime() to not need floating point,
 419added xparsemillitime() for milliseconds common case, and
 420parsetime() now treats leading garbage as an error instead of returning zero.
 421The bufgetpwuid()/pufgetgrgid() functons can now handle more than 4k of group
 422data. The set_terminal() function can now set serial speed, and microcom.c
 423uses it. Added xsignal_flags(), and more consistently use xsignal() (which wraps
 424sigaction()) instead of signal().
 425A new xgetrandom() function calls the new getrandom() system call, falling
 426back to /dev/urandom on older kernel/libc (made to actually _work_ by
 427Patrick Oppenlander).</p>
 429<p><u>Build infrastructure:</u>
 430Updated dependency detection so "make distclean defconfig toybox" now works
 431all on the same command line. (This is nice when $CROSS_COMPILE changes).
 432scripts/config2help.c no longer includes parts of lib/ and just copies what
 433it needs into itself, improving build portability.
 434The build now checks the specified cross compiler exists, hopefully providing
 435a more informative error message when it doesn't. Similarly, when .config is
 436missing the error message suggests running make defconfig.</p>
 438<a name="23-06-2018" /><a href="#23-06-2018"><hr><h2><b>June 23, 2018</b></h2></a>
 440<p>There is a theory which states that if ever anyone discovers exactly what
 441the Universe is for and why it is here, it will instantly disappear and be
 442replaced by something even more bizarre and inexplicable. There is another
 443theory which states that this has already happened.</p>
 444<p> - The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy</p>
 447<p><a href=downloads/toybox-0.7.7.tar.gz>Toybox 0.7.7</a>
 448(<a href=>git commit</a>)
 449is out.</p>
 451<p><u>New commands</u>: Rob Landley added <b>getconf</b>, Elliott Hughes added
 452<b>uuidgen</b>, and <b>ping</b> and <b>fmt</b> were promoted out of pending.</p>
 454<p><u>New options</u>: The <b>cp</b> command added the --parents option,
 455<b>readlink</b> now has -m to show where a missing path would be,
 456<b>netstat</b> got some updates (better nommu support, it can use /etc/services
 457names, more command line options are bounds checked),
 458Ng Zhi An added --getra and --setra (get/set readahead) to <b>blockdev</b>,
 459Elliott Hughes added <b>xxd</b> -o and made <b>top</b> -d understand fractional
 460sections (because the Linux Test Project uses that), and
 461Minghui Liu added <b>watch</b> -b.</p>
 463<p><u>Bugfixes</u>: Several fixes to <b>vmstat</b>: Elliott Hughes made it work on a
 46448-core machine
 465and fixed a glitch with -n, Haroon Maqsood pointed out "vmstat 1 1" didn't
 466stop and "vmstat -n" didn't print the first theader line.
 467Minghui Liu fixed a bug where <b>cp</b> -p didn't preserve
 468timestamps, and pointed out the b, c, and d suffixes on numbers weren't
 469working. Ryan Pritchard pointed out that <b>du</b> -d0 should act like du -s.
 470Filip Perich made an RFC2347 OACK compliance fix to <b>tftp</b> in pending.
 471Zach van Rijn fixed a bug in <b>xxd</b> causing incorrect translation of
 472uppercase characters.
 473Elliott fixed several things in <b>top</b> (removed spurious '\r' characters from -b
 474output, removed interactive flicker, made running processes bold), and
 475pushed Rob to make <b>file</b> work better recognizing things on stdin
 476("cat /bin/ls | file -" still won't work but "file - < /bin/ls" should).
 477Rob fixed a bug in <b>netstat</b> on 64 bit big endian systems,
 478and fixed <b>cut</b> -DF
 479(a posix compliance fix broke its ability to act as a decent awk replacment
 480because outputting all delimiterless lines isn't what you want there, -D
 481now disables that too).</p>
 484<p><u>Documentation</u>: Rob added a buildroot section to the roadmap with the
 485prequisites that needs to run, and reformatted more of the ps --help text
 486to two columns.</p>
 489FLAGS_NODASH is now set in toys.optargs when an optstring starting
 490with & has no dash in its first argument. (This lets "ps -ax" and "ps ax"
 491behave differently.) Factored out xtestfile() into lib/.
 492The comma-separated-list parsing infrastructure moved to lib/commas.c.
 493Added mkpath() for the common case of mkpathat() and #defined MKPATHAT_*
 494constants for the uncommon cases. Elliott added better error checking
 495to xparsetime() and fixed a bug in names_to_pid() (used in <b>pidof</b>
 496and <b>killall</b> and such).
 497Rob inlined the old toys/e2fs.h into pending's mke2fs,
 498and removed a rogue semicolon from the WOULD_EXIT() macro that screwed
 499up if() statement levels. The do_lines() semantics changed adding a
 500callback(0,0) at the end of each file.</p>
 503The test_* commands under toys/example were all renamed demo_* so
 504they don't share a namespace with running a standalone command
 505through the test suite (ala "make test_sed"), then
 506demo_human_readable became demo_number so it can also test atolx()
 507suffixes. The readlink.test was getting confused by a
 508behavior difference between toybox and ubuntu (Ubuntu's ln -sf wouldn't
 509replace a symlink that pointed to itself, toybox's would), now there's
 510an explicit rm so it works on ubuntu too. The test suite plumbing's
 511error message for a test with the wrong number of arguments now
 512correctly identifies which test it's complaining about, and it can now
 513run a test on a command name beginning with "-" (none yet but it
 514comes up in toysh).</p>
 516<p><u>Building</u>: You can now override strip with $STRIP. The set of
 517"make install_airlock" commands got tweaked for the 4.17 kernel (which
 518needs bison and flex because the new kconfig plumbing doesn't have _shipped
 519versions of those generated files like the old kconfig did), and for
 520the new release (remove ping, toybox provides it now).
 521$LDFLAGS now applies to library probing (the android NDK provides
 522dynamic libraries without corresponding --static versions).
 523Elliott took a CFG_TOYBOX_DEBUG check out of an error_exit() to make
 524clang stop complaining about an error that should never happen.</p>
 526<a name="24-02-2018" /><a href="#24-02-2018"><hr><h2><b>February 24, 2018</b></h2></a>
 528"Arthur," said Ford.<br />
 529"Hello? Yes?" said Arthur.<br />
 530"Just believe everything I tell you, and it will all be very, very simple."<br />
 531"Ah, well, I'm not sure I believe that."<br />
 533<p> - The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy</p>
 536<p><a href=downloads/toybox-0.7.6.tar.gz>Toybox 0.7.6</a>
 537(<a href=>git commit</a>)
 538is out, a month and change late.</p>
 540<p>This release adds a <b>crc32</b> command and
 541cleans up and promotes <b>iconv</b>, <b>logger</b>, and <b>setfattr</b>.
 542Pending added <b>stty</b> and <b>fmt</b>, the other half of <b>ping</b>,
 543and got a lot of cleanup on <b>gzip</b>/<b>gunzip</b>/<b>zcat</b>.</p>
 545<p>The <b>cut</b> command got a complete rewrite adding support for multiple
 546ranges, utf8/unicode characters, and new -CDFO options. Use -C to measure
 547columns rather than characters (for double width chars), and "cut -DF 3-5"
 548selects words (like "awk '{print $3 $4 $5}'").</p>
 550<p>This release adds <b>top -m</b> and <b>iotop -H</b> (and fixed top width truncating for narrow terminal windows),
 551added <b>iconv -c</b>, fixed <b>ps -T 1234</b> to show threads belonging to
 552that PID, improved <b>file</b>'s executable identification (properly recognizing
 553both endiannesses and adding sh/frv fdpic, bpf, and new microblaze
 554identifiers), and <b>blkid</b> now only shows LABEL= when it isn't blank.</p>
 556<p>Running ./configure now does "make defconfig", help_exit() now shows the
 557"See %s --help" message on the same line, and several web pages
 558(about, code, roadmap, cleanup) got updates.</p>
 560<p>Elliott and the Android devs added <b>df -i</b>, <b>uptime -p</b>,
 561<b>time -v</b>, and <b>xxd -i -ri</b>,
 562fixed <b>id -G</b> to only output the group IDs, fixed the <b>xargs -0 -n</b>
 563combination, made <b>find -exec +</b> obey ARG_MAX (just like xargs), made
 564<b>killall</b> kill scripts too, fixed an off by one error in <b>pidof</b>
 565that could cause false positive matches in 15 character names, added
 566gzip/gunzip/zcat tests, and taught <b>file</b> to identify more stuff
 567(ogg, TrueType font, LLVM bitcode, PEM certs, and PE executables), and
 568for some reason needed TOYBOX_VENDOR in the version stuff.
 569Android <b>getprop</b>/<b>setprop</b> now allows ro. properties to have
 570arbitrary lengths, <b>losetup</b> can now find loop devices under /dev/block (where android puts
 571them for historical reasons), and Andreas Gampe pointed out a thinko in
 572<b>top</b> that triggered llvm's address sanitizer checks.</p>
 574<p>Gael PORTAY asked for mdev to work when Linux has the
 575block layer configured out, Patrick Oppenlander pointed out a problem
 576with make bloatcheck's build dependencies, and
 577xuphung on github fixed config2help building on MacOS X.</p>
 579<p>Commands with locale support now setlocale(LC_TYPE, "C.UTF-8") for more
 580targeted locale support (enable character parsing with
 581utf8 support, use "C" semantics otherwise). The toys/example/test_*.c
 582commands got renamed demo_*.c.</p>
 584<p>In lib.c the millitime() function returns current unix time in milliseconds
 585(which as a 64 bit number is good for + or - 292 million years from
 586midnight Jan 1 1970), and the old xgetty() function became tty_fd() returning
 587-1 instead of erroring out.</p>
 589<p>The "make help" text moved from the Makefile to scripts/help.txt,
 590ls.c now lists some of its deviations from posix, and work is underway
 591to make ps.c more intelligible (and figure out how to break it up into
 592multiple files).</p>
 594<a name="12-10-2017" /><a href="#12-10-2017"><hr><h2><b>October 12, 2017</b></h2></a>
 595<blockquote><p>Would it save you a lot of time if I just gave up and went
 596mad now?</p>
 597<p> - The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy</p>
 600<p><a href=downloads/toybox-0.7.5.tar.gz>Toybox 0.7.5</a>
 601(<a href=>git commit</a>)
 602is out.</p>
 604<p>This is another <b>mostly bugfix release</b>. I delayed it a bit trying to get some
 605of the many half-finished projects (dd, ping, lsof, iconv, cut, sysconf,
 606the cp --parents option...) finished/promoted/tested, but decided adding big
 607things at the end of the dev cycle would be too destabilizing.</p>
 609<p>A couple <b>new features</b> slipped in anyway. Ilya Kuzmich added head -c
 610and strings -t (and corrected strings' output in a couple places). Elliott
 611Hughes taught file to recognize Macintosh (Mach-O) binaries.</p>
 613<p><b>NOTE</b>: the chrt command is broken when built against musl-libc
 614because that project's maintainer decided he didn't like the system calls
 615it depends on, so he
 616<a href=>removed
 617them from his libc</a>. The prebuilt binaries are built against musl,
 618so the chrt command there will always say -ENOSYS. (It works fine built against
 619glibc, and presumably bionic or uClibc.)</p>
 621<p><b>Bugfixes</b>: Remounting (mount -o remount,rw) should work properly now,
 622and we fixed another place ps was segfaulting when /proc
 623entries vanished out from under us (a hard to hit race condition
 624mostly noticeable in long-running "top" exiting; error value was treated
 625as a pointer). Elliott Hughes fixed a -Wformat warning in expr.c,
 626and made xargs split the command
 627line at ARG_MAX (which is 1/4 the stack size ulimit, which normal users
 628can arbitrarily increase but execve() will complain if they don't).
 629Josh Gao made netcat -l exit after handling a request, and reported a
 630seq bug (seq "1000000 10000001" output 1e+06, fixed now). Zach Riggle fixed a
 631broken URL in the README. Rob fixed env -0 checking the flag wrong so
 632it didn't work in combination with other flags (typo).</p>
 635Replaced mbrtowc() with a new utf8towc() that doesn't have a context
 636struct or care about locale. A bugfix in comma_scan() (wasn't removing an entry at the end
 637of the list) is why remount _sometimes_ worked (depending on argument
 638order), xgetaddrinfo() is now separate from xconnect(),
 639atolx_range() learned the w (word=2) suffix, and b is now (block=512) instead
 640of (byte=1).</p>
 642<p><b>Build</b>: Patrick Oppenlander added a workaround for a bug in config2help.c
 643that resulted in segfaults on newer toolchains. (It was actually a use
 644after free error; the build infrastructure isn't nearly as heavily audited as
 645code that gets installed on the target; oops.) A new GITHASH
 646environment variable can force the build version from
 647the command line, and the build checks for .git in the top directory
 648before asking git what our version is (so it isn't confused by ../../.git
 649in an enclosing directory). Added a build #warning about musl intentionally
 650breaking chrt (as with nommu fork() musl now provides a broken
 651stub function so compile-time probes for its existence think it's there, and
 652you can't run the result to test behavior when cross compiling).</p>
 654<a name="19-06-2017" /><a href="#19-06-2017"><hr><h2><b>June 19, 2017</b></h2></a>
 655<blockquote><p>It is a well-known fact that those people who most want to rule people are, ipso facto, those least suited to do it.
 656To summarize the summary: anyone who is capable of getting themselves made President should on no account be allowed to do the job.</p>
 657<p>- The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy</p>
 660<p><a href=downloads/toybox-0.7.4.tar.gz>Toybox 0.7.4</a>
 661(<a href=>git commit</a>)
 662is out. No new commands this time, but
 663<b>chrt</b> and <b>dmesg</b> got promoted out of pending.</p>
 665<p><u>New features</u>:
 666Rob rewrote paste, which should work much better now, and added grep
 667-M and -S to match and skip wildcards respectively (useful with -r).
 668Elliott's updated dmesg has -T and --color. The file
 669command can recognize gzip now, uptime grew -s, date grew %N, env knows - as a first argument
 670means -i (posix!) and grew -0, ls defaults to -b
 671instead of -q now when there's a tty, and ls has a new -ll option (with
 672--full-time as a compatibility synonym) showing nanoseconds and (for some
 673reason) timezone. (Why do individual files have timezones?) Elliott added
 674"uudecode -o -" support. Illya Kuzmich taught head -v and -q. The cpio
 675code no longer adds the "TRAILER!!!" entry by default (initramfs extractor
 676doesn't care) without which you can concatenate cpio archives with "cat".
 677(Use the new --trailer option if you want the legacy behavior.)
 678In pending, fdisk compiles now and tar understands bzip2.</p>
 681The "make install_airlock" target now symlinks bc from the host because
 682the kernel <a href=>inexplicably</a>
 683needs that to build. This was motivated by
 684<a href=>mkroot</a>, which builds under
 685a toybox airlock directory.</p>
 687<p>Lots of work on the test suite, mostly from the Android guys who are now
 688running it under Android. This fixed several existing tests that didn't
 689pass, made more tests run on a toybox-only system, and so on. The test suite
 690infrastructure now has a second testing function,
 691"testcmd", which supplies the command name being tested (bypassing
 692shell builtins).</p>
 694<p>Various android build and config fixes, getting closer to being able
 695to let android someday use scripts/ instead of generated/* snapshots.
 696Also more work into building under android's NDK; not quite there yet
 697but much closer.
 698Use nproc in scripts/ detect available processors (so you can control the SMP level with taskset).
 699Removed the old uClibc compatibility glue, it's been 5 years since their
 700<a href=>last release</a>.</p>
 702<p>The new config option TOYBOX_PEDANTIC_ARGS checks arguments when there
 703are no arguments, so things like "uptime" no longer silently ignore arguments
 704you pass but instead refuse to run.</p>
 707The FAQ now has more than one entry. Commands no longer output the full
 708help text for argument errors but instead just say "See %s --help" with the
 709command name (in addition to the actual error message).
 710Elliott did a big period-ectomy on all the --help text, and
 711we cleaned up some tab/space inconsistency. The
 712non-html help -a output now has separators with the command name.
 713The top/iotop and pkill/pgrep help text now describe a lot more of what
 714the commands can do. Twitter's code of conduct page went down so we
 715mirrored the text locally.</p>
 718Fixed a race condition in ps/top where a process that exited right as we
 719read its data returned a different error value than we were expecting (which
 720was causing long-running top instances to occasionally exit),
 721mount now gives an error if it can't autodetect the filesystem
 722type, ps no longer queries the terminal size when output isn't to a tty
 723(so "ps -A | cat" doesn't vary), date's chkmktime() was replaced with
 724simple range checks for fields (to avoid false positives from things like
 725timezones and daylight savings time), removed %s from date's help (we
 726didn't implement it, we have @seconds[.nanoseconds] instead), fixed
 727zcat's buffer flush logic (which was always failing on files larger
 728than 32k), and factor now detects requests for numbers >64 bits and fails
 729loudly instead of producing incorrect answers.
 730Elliott fixed touch -a/-m (they were backwards), and allowed ':' in
 731setprop's property names. Grep now exits with 2 for errors (so -q can
 732distinguish "didn't find" from "didn't work"), doesn't stop on symlinks
 733that point nowhere (there was an error_exit() that should just be a warning),
 734and provides error messages for files we could open but not read.</p>
 737New library functions: strend() complements strstart(), minof()/maxof()
 738are min/max macros that evalute arguments once and autodetect type (why
 739isn't this in libc?), xmmap() checks MAP_FAILED (which is not NULL).</p>
 741<a name="21-02-2017" /><a href="#21-02-2017"><hr><h2><b>February 21, 2017</b></h2></a>
 742<blockquote><p>Only six people in the Galaxy knew that the job of the
 743Galactic President was not to wield power but to attract attention
 744away from it. Zaphod Beeblebrox was amazingly good at his job.</p>
 745<p>- The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy</p></blockquote>
 747<p>Despite everything, <a href=downloads/toybox-0.7.3.tar.gz>Toybox 0.7.3</a>
 748(<a href=>git commit</a>)
 749is out. The <u>new commands</u> this time are <b>ftpget</b>, <b>ftpput</b>, <b>microcom</b>, and <b>ascii</b>.<p>
 751<p>We also had two command _demotions_ out of defconfig:
 752<b>hostid</b> got moved to toys/example and
 753switched to "default n" because despite <a href=>still being in posix</a>
 754the concept of a unique 32 bit number identifying a system is something
 755Linux outgrew about the time Pauline Middelink wrote the first IP
 756Masquerading code. And Elliott did a complete rewrite of <b>dmesg</b> introducing
 757two codepaths that I didn't get a chance to unify and didn't want to
 758hold up the release for, so that's back in pending.</p>
 760<p><u>New features</u>: Rob added units to <b>find</b> -atime and friends
 761(with the legacy -amin alias). Elliott added color and -w to dmesg, fallocate
 762-o, and improved file's ELF parsing. Steve Muckle added -d and finit_module
 763support to modprobe. Rob and Elliott tweaked the
 764ps/top display format a bit more (extending the USER field from 8 to 18 chars
 765and putting + at the end of string fields that got truncated).
 766df -a isn't entirely new, but wasn't documented and needed a bugfix.</p>
 769Last release broke oneit because -c didn't get moved to xopen_stdio() (oops).
 770Rob and Elliott simultaneously spotted ps padding each line to 99999
 771chars when there's no tty (serial console or adb); now it pads to 80 in
 772that case but also switches on -w to avoid field truncation. The "tty"
 773field also sometimes had trailing debris (that's fixed now). And "top" was
 774endlessly redrawing with out tty because receipt of the ANSI size probe
 775results would set SIGWINCH, and handling that sent another ansi probe. (Sigh.)
 776And while we're there, replace "ADDR" with "BIT" in ps -l so there are
 777more than 4 chars left for the "CMD" field on 64 bit systems.</p>
 779<p>Izabera pointed out that split -b and -l can't mix, and suggested seq should
 780multiply to avoid accumulating rounding errors from repeated fractional
 781increments. Wang Xiao Jian fixed a bug in sort -k.
 782Elliott let getprop use the @ character in property names, and
 783Dimitry Ivanov removed the name length limit for system properties.
 784Elliott also improved some error reporting and improved top -H's display
 785of thread names.
 787<p>Josh Gao pointed out that recursive operations on . and .. could be ignored
 788in chmod -R (and the resulting generic fix to dirtree_notdotdot() fixed
 789it in several other places).</p>
 791<p>Justin Cormack caught tar producing a warning to stdout that screwed up
 792"tar c" to stdout.
 793Rob fixed an option parsing bug (where switching off a --longopt in menuconfig
 794confused the parser), and another one where an option excluding itself
 795(ala "abc[-ab][!abc]" with "command -a -b") would segfault.</p>
 797<p>There's some sort of gcc stack over-optimization bug where musl-libc's
 798version of vfork() doesn't get marked with attribute(returns_twice) so
 799stack varabiles in the same function after that get semi-randomly overwritten
 800when the optimizer decides to reclaim the space. So add the attribute
 801to the function the XVFORK() wrapper macro calls. (It's a nommu thing.)</p>
 803<p>Fixed a couple variable size mismatch bugs that were only tested on 64 bit
 804(printf %x 64) or only tested on 32 bit (modprobe), removed some
 805unnecessary casts in stat.</p>
 807<p>Continuing attempts to build under Android NDK brought up that posix
 808defines the global 'stdout' as a macro, which older versions of bionic
 809turned into an array member, but a function was using it as an argument
 810name. (This worked in the AOSP build because it only builds against current
 811bionic, where there's a global 'stdout'.)</p>
 813<p>Several commits argued with clang's warning generation, eventually
 814settling on a variant of __attribute__((__shut_up__)).</p>
 816<p>Android should no longer give spurious error messages
 817when you "ps -A | head" about EPIPE on output. (Older versions of bionic
 818set an error handler on SIGPIPE, but it shouldn't do that now. More recent
 819versions of adb set the SIGPIPE handler to SIGIGN instead of SIGDFL,
 820leading to write returning an error message instead of silently killing
 821the program. So we set it back to the default.)</p>
 824Removed website link to the gmane archive (which didn't survive gmane's
 825change of ownership). The FAQ now answers a _second_ question. (Woo!)
 826Some roadmap updates.</p>
 828<p><u>Build tweaks</u>:
 829Upgraded "make install_airlock" target to only warn about missing
 830commands (unless $PEDANTIC is set) when it sets up the hermetic build
 831path. (The plan is still to implement everything but the toolchain
 832binaries in toybox, but in the meantime we're symlinking other stuff from
 833the $HOST that isn't ready yet. See
 834<a href=>mkroot</a> for an example using
 837<p>Elliott and Rob continue to poke at building toybox with Android's NDK,
 838but it's a work in progress (<a href=>thread</a>). Various changes
 839removing libcutils dependencies and adding an selinux dependency to getprop
 840are fallout from this.</p>
 842<p>Cross-compiling from Macs needs to use "gsed" instead of apple's
 843version, so teach the build to use that name if it exists in the $PATH.
 844If you try to build without running config first, you should get better
 845error reporting now. Added a workaround for Centos' broken "which" command
 846producing output when it _can't_ find a name in the $PATH.</p>
 849The new dirtree flag DIRTREE_PROC skips non-numeric entries so things
 850like ps and top can scan /proc more efficiently.</p>
 852<a name="21-10-2016" /><a href="#21-10-2016"><hr><h2><b>October 21, 2016</b></h2></a>
 853<blockquote><p>Probability factor of one to one. We have normality. I repeat,
 854we have normality. Anything you still can't cope with is therefore your
 855own problem.</p><p> - The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy</p></blockquote>
 857<p><a href=downloads/toybox-0.7.2.tar.gz>Toybox 0.7.2</a>
 858(<a href=>git commit</a>)
 859is out.</p>
 861<p>During this development cycle, Elliott Hughes <a href=>got interviewed
 862on the ADB podcast</a>
 863and Rob Landley <a href=>got interviewed on Linux Luddites</a> (<a href=>again</a>).
 864Both talk about toybox and many other things.
 865The web page also grew a new <a href=faq.html>FAQ page</a>, currently with
 866just the one.</p>
 868<p>New comands added to defconfig are <b>tunctl</b>,
 869<b>log</b>, <b>start</b>, <b>stop</b>, and <b>sendevent</b>.
 870The commands <b>file</b> and <b>netstat</b> got promoted out of pending.
 871Pending added <b>chrt</b>, <b>setfattr</b>, and <b>getfattr</b>, and saw
 872a lot of cleanups to diffstat and dd but not enough to promote them to
 873defconfig yet. A new toys/net directory was added, moving ifconfig, netcat,
 874netstat, rfkill, and tunctl there so far.</p>
 876<p><b>Upgrades</b>: All commands now parse --version when they understand
 877--help, but "true" and "false" should now ignore their arguments entirely.
 878We taught stat to handle "%12x" and "%.12x" printf-style escapes, which
 879apparently other versions do. The ifconfig output now shows the interface's
 880device driver. Added patch -d and --dry-run, wc can now do -cm together,
 881find has a NOP -noleaf so scripts that use that don't break, add -c to md5sum
 882and sha1sum. Elliott taught ps to treat extra aguments as additional -p
 883pids, implemented xxd -s, did a number of upgrades to file (added -HL,
 884support for ar files, improved ELF support to report android API level
 885and stripped/not stripped and it no longer prints a guessed build ID type).
 886Elliott also added optional build-time support for using openssl's
 887assembly-optimized md5sum/sha1sum implementations (leading to a new
 888<a href=design.html>design</a> policy on shared libraries).</p>
 890<p><b>Bugfixes</b>: Too many fixes to "ps" and "touch" to list, from both
 891Elliott and Rob. Rob taught sed to handle s/[[:space:]/]// type sequences
 892properly, switched grep to a better
 893workaround for <a href=>glibc bug 17829</a>, made sed -i preserve ownership when run as root,
 894made du max out at 2 terabytes instead of 2 gigabytes on 32-bit systems
 895(it was always designed to, but was missing a typecast),
 896fixed the option parsing infrastructure (config options that remove command
 897line options got the placeholders wrong), fix to printf for printing
 898octal digits and handling the (posix-mandated) difference between %b and
 899non-%b octal output, reading from "-" no longer closes stdin when done,
 900netcat -L works with nommu (although it may need more portability work),
 901and you can now "make test_scankey" if you want to. Several commands
 902(stat, makedeves, chgrp, cp, find) handled user name lookup failure badly
 903(stat was segfaulting if you interrogated a file belonging to a nonexistent
 904user, "chown 12345 file" errored out if you didn't have that user
 905in /etc/passwd... now they should all print/accept the number when
 906appropriate). "LC_ALL=C ls -Cs --color" produces the same output
 907as other versions (two spaces padding, -k hardwired on).<p>
 909<p>Kyungsik Lee fixed a bug
 910in cp (readlink() doesn't actually null terminate the string it reads in),
 911Elliott Hughes made pgrep/pkill return success/failure, fixed trailing
 912whitespace in netstat, fixed a SMACK symbol conflict due to linux/xattr.h
 913changing, fixed ls -sh, and added a lot of
 914stuff to the <a href=roadmap.html>roadmap page</a>.
 915Izabera pointed out cmp -l and -s can't be selected at the same time,
 916that timeout was never actually checking -v, that ls should default to -q
 917when output is to a tty, and that "file -" would sometimes try to open "-"
 918instead of stdin.
 919Usischev Yury pointed out a use after free error, and that id shouldn't
 920call exit() directly. Matthias Urhahn pointed out that stat(2) returns
 921hardwired 512-byte units, so stat.c was wrong. David Hedges pointed out
 922that route could only handle 10 character interface names when the kernel
 923can do 15 (it's still in pending for a reason, but fixed). Evgenii
 924Stepanov found and helped diagnose one of the more subtle ps bugs fixed
 925this time around.</p>
 927<p>Calling "make test_blah" no longer causes make to error out if the last
 928test fails (and thus returns a nonzero error code).
 929Building single commands and the multiplexer used to require a "make clean"
 930between them (because they had different config files both of which were older
 931than generated/config.h so it didn't get rebuilt; now it just always
 932rebuilds it).</p>
 934<p>The defconfig build is now slightly less broken on older centos versions
 935(although <a href=>the consensus</a> is that Centos is just generally broken).<p>
 937<p>Several commands were over-using xprintf(), which flushes its output
 938to check for error (something you only need to do maybe once per line,
 939and even then maybe only in loops because xexit() flushes and checks
 940ferror() for you and adjusts the exit code if we wrote stuff to stdout
 941that couldn't be printed). Lots of little flushes are inefficient,
 942so most things can use normal printf(). (Retransmission
 943of short writes is presumably libc's problem since it's buffering the
 944output and all.)</p>
 947New library functions readlink0() and readlinkat0() which properly null
 948terminates the symlink value (which the stock libc function inexplicably
 950The new do_lines() function interates reading lines from a filehandle
 951and calling a function on each line.
 952New function pollinate() factoring out netcat's poll() loop so things
 953like telnet can use it.
 954New functions getusername() and getgroupname() return a
 955char * given a uid/gid (and return a string representation of the number
 956if the lookup fails), and xgetpwnamid/xgetgrnamid were renamed to
 957xgetuid/xgetgid and now return an integer instead of a struct (also helping
 958handle lookup failures, you can still return the uid/get for "12345").</p>
 960<p>Switched atolx() to use long long internally.
 961Renamed xopen() to xopen_stdio() and made a new xopen() that never returns
 962stdin, stdout, or stderr (duping /dev/null into the filehandles as necessary).
 963New function xopenro() opens a file read only with one less argument, and
 964understands that "-" means stdin. New flag WARN_ONLY tells these functions
 965to just print a warning on failure, and return -1 instead of exiting.
 966Misc new functions like openro() which defaults to the WARN_ONLY behavior
 967and notstdio() which dup()s a filehandle up beyond stdin/out/err backfilling
 968with /dev/null as necessary. The WARN_ONLY flag let us remove the failok
 969argument from loopfiles().</p>
 971<p>New TOYFLAG_NOHELP disables --help processing (which "true" and "false"
 972should not do).</b>
 974<p>The test suite now has NOSPACE=1 to ignore whitespace (using diff -b to
 975check results), which helps TEST_HOST pass the same tests as toybox.
 976Fixes to chattr and date tests. It also has a new variable $C with the
 977absolute path to the command being tested (bypassing shell builtins),
 978and a function testcmd() which is just like testing() except it prepends
 979the command name ($C) to the test command line as well as the test
 982<a name="02-06-2016" /><a href="#02-06-2016"><hr><h2><b>June 2, 2016</b></h2></a>
 983<blockquote><p>When the 'Drink' button is pressed it makes an instant but
 984highly detailed examination of the subject's taste buds, a spectroscopic
 985analysis of the subject's metabolism, and then sends tiny experimental
 986signals down the neural pathways to the taste centres of the subject's
 987brain to see what is likely to be well received. However, no-one knows
 988quite why it does this because it then invariably delivers a cupful of
 989liquid that is almost, but not quite, entirely unlike tea.</p>
 990<p> - The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy</p></blockquote>
 992<p><a href=downloads/toybox-0.7.1.tar.gz>Toybox 0.7.1</a>
 993(<a href=>git commit</a>)
 994is out. (Yes, I forgot to update the --version string, but I already
 995uploaded the <a href=downloads/binaries/0.7.1>binaries</a>.)</p>
 997<p>The website has https support now, you can "make cat ps ls"
 998to get standalone commands (and "make list list_pending" to see what's
 999available), and a whole lot of bugfixes and new options to existing
1002<h2>New Commands</h2>
1003<p>Rob implemented <b>ulimit</b>. In pending, Elliott Hughes implemented
1004file. and Lipi Lee implemented a simple wget. (Pending also had minor
1005cleanups to more and lsof, but no promotions this time around.)</p>
1007<h2>New Options</h2>
1008<p>Izabera implemented env -u, suggested adding seq -w, made factor
1009use full unsigned 64 bit math even on 32 bit platforms, pointed out base64
1010-w0 should disable wrapping, and sped up wc -c.
1011Elliott Hughes added mount -o relatime, xxd -p -r, and od -w.
1012Sameer Pradhan (or possibly Bilal Qureshi) suggested adding stat -tL -c %m%t%T.
1013Tom Cherry added getprop -Z. Paul Barker added hostname -b and -F.
1014Rob added ls -b, made ls -q work with utf8,
1015made sed -f - read from stdin, and added top -O (like ps -O).</p>
1017<p>Elliott and Rob <b>added Thread support to ps and top</b>,
1018with -o TID, TNAME. We also added -o PCY (android scheduling policy),
1019-o BIT (process is 32 or 64 bit), and -o TNAME now shows the parent
1020command name for threads.</p>
1024<p>Rob added the sed invocations to convert tabs/spaces and back to
1025design.html. Isaac Dunham updated hexedit's help text.
1026Jakob Flierl pointed out a broken URL in the README.</p>
1028<p>Rob also redid the naming scheme of sed's pattern manipulation code to
1029remove the gratuitous references to Roger Zelazny's "Amber" series, since it
1030was confusing people.</p>
1034<p>Grep -H and -n should now work properly with -ABC. Andy Chu pointed out an
1035out of bounds access for zero length lines in rev, fixed a buffer overflow
1036in diff -r, and fixed operator precedence in expr (although Rob is rewriting
1037chunks of expr so toysh can use its plumbing for $(( )) ).
1038Patrick Ohly fixed the too-aggressive suid permission dropping logic.
1039Josh Gao fixed a segfault when find -iname got no argument, and
1040made tail -f work right with just one file argument.
1041Tom Marshall cleaned up tar's long filename support and improved
1042the tar tests, and reported another find bug (with -iname -o -iname not
1043tracking copy lifetimes properly) that got fixed.</p>
1045<p>Elliott Hughes fixed wc -c to not trust zero length files to actually be
1046zero length (/proc does that), fixed "mount -o rw,remount /system" on
1047Android, removed trailing spaces on ps -o cmdline, fixed pkill -9 and
1048the corresponding tests, made "insmod -" work, fixed top -b and tail -NUM,
1049pointed out that ps shouldn't trim numeric fields for display size limits,
1050and added some more
1051explicit "sort" calls to make pipelines so build tempfiles are easier to cache.
1052Rob <a href=>fixed an insane sed thing</a> the perl 5.22 build was doing.
1053Fixed mount -o to properly pass in leftover string data, and
1054<a href=>documented how to use toybox to mount nfs</a> (warning: kernel patch
1055to fix some bitrot in the kernel NFS driver's string parsing attached
1056to that message).</p>
1058<p>George Burgess IV corrected some variable types in traceroute.
1059Base64 now wraps == properly. Fixed two bzcat segfaults reported by
1060John Regehr. Andy Chu found a segfault in "sed -e 'c\'" with no trailing
1061line, and implemented mv -n and cp -n. The cyanogenmod guys pointed out that
1062cp -a shouldn't complain if a non-root user can't chown, and we added
1063the output path to cp -r error messages while we were there (before was just
1064the filename).</p>
1066<p>Samuel Holland fixed blkid's handling of vfat labels, and
1067fixed a segfault when basename was passed an empty string and an empty
1068suffix. Davis Mosenkovs fixed touch -t seconds parsing.
1069Rob fixed a bunzip bug reported by John Regehr (the bad CRC
1070error message was printing a NUL argument).</p>
1072<p>Not all of the commands build standalone, but more of them do now;
1073scripts/ can now build a "mv" that isn't actually "cp".
1074The dependencies are more granualr, so "make top; make ps" no longer
1075produces a broken ps that ignores -A (because ps.o wasn't getting rebuilt
1076even though top had the FLAG macros for -A zeroed).</p>
1079<p>Rob added a <b>warning when building commands out of
1080pending</b>. (The pending directory is full of code that hasn't been
1081properly vetted. Use at your own risk.)</p>
1083<p><b>New build targets let you build individual commands by name</b>, ala
1084"make ls cat ps", and you can run the test suite for each standalone
1085command with "make test_ls" and such.
1086"make list" shows all such standalone commands in defconfig, and
1087"make list_pending" shows unfinished commands from toys/pending
1088("make list list_pending" shows both together). "make clean" now deletes
1089these filenames at the top level, and the corresponding unstripped files
1090live in the directory generated/unstripped.</p>
1092<p>Nicholas Boichat suggested switching to use $! for process
1093enumeration during parallel builds (which is both more efficient and more
1094portable), and suggested shell builtin replacements for wc/awk/sed so the
1095build loop has fewer forks now.</p>
1097<p>Lots of work on the test suite, much of it due to Andy Chu. It now
1098consistently prints the name of the command being tested at the start of each
1099test (and the common infrastructure does that, not each individual test), and
1100"make tests" actually runs all the available tests now.
1101Seperated pgrep and pkill tests, split lsattr/chattr, added fstype and base64
1102tests. The "tests/files" directory now collects files for tests to
1103use, with blkid, bzcat, and utf8 subdirectories: the $FILES variable
1104gives a path to it, so "$FILES/blkid/ext2.bz2" and so on.
1105The testsuite now has test files with 3 different types of "not utf8 output"
1106sequences that require escaping, plus some combining character torture
1107tests, direction reversals, and so on.</p>
1109<p>Added dependencies on TOYBOX_FORK to various pending commands that need
1110nommu conversion (which should fix the allyesconfig build).</p>
1112<p>Static builds with selinux should work again.</p>
1116<p>New bufgetgrgid() and bufgetpwuid() functions cache previous lookup info
1117rather than repeatedly traversing /etc/passwd and /etc/group (which is slow).
1118Added xpipe() to lib to catch pipe creation failure.
1119The HELP_ macros generated by config2help.c now use a capital prefix
1120to avoid collicing with help_exit() and such.</p>
1122<p>The dirtree infrastructure got a cleanup pass in preparation for adding
1123infinite recursion depth support (needed by rm -r), updated the
1124<a href=code.html#ib_dirtree>documentation</a> to describe the new
1125semantics (removing dirtree_start() and adding dirtree_flagread()).
1126Now dirtree_recurse() takes the new dirfd as an argument.</p>
1128<p>Split out _xexit() from xexit() and let sigatexit() set multiple
1131<p>For years the man pages have said to #include <sys/types.h> to get
1132major/minor/makedev but now that glibc
1133<a href=>has vowed
1134to break existing programs</a> and replace it with another nonstandard header
1135not in posix or lsb, we added our own functions to lib/ to do the transform
1136ourselves (based on what the kernel actually expects).</p>
1140<p>Debian unstable started needing an extra header #include for some reason, and
1141although printf("%.*s", INT_MAX, s) worked fine on Ubuntu 12.04 it
1142didn't on 14.04, so added a workaround for that. Typecast a printf because
1143wchar_t isn't a rigidly defined size. RLIMIT_RTTIME was
1144added to the kernel in 2008 but you can't expect uClibc to have noticed yet,
1145nor did it #define MS_RELATIME (added in 2006), or prlimit (2010)...
1146(Given the improvements in musl and bionic, uClibc support may be dropped
1147in a future release.) Given that the xattr functions were added during
1148linux 2.5, we can #include its header unconditionally.</p>
1150<p>Renamed basename_r() to something else to avoid conflicting with freebsd's
1151libc, and both scripts/install.h and scripts/config2help.c no longer include
1152toys.h (to make cross-compiling from systems we don't run on easier).</p>
1154<p>Debian bug 635570 did something unspeakably nonportable, depending on
1155"sed -e 'a\'" (with no next line of the pattern, so an unterminated
1156continuation) to add a newline to the last line of input if and only if
1157that last line of the input didn't have a newline, and to take no other
1158action. This is well into "depending on a bug" territory, but we implemented
1159it because otherwise Debian's install broke. (Of course this behavior
1160is undocumented, non-obvious, and doesn't really make logical sense.)</p>
1162<p>CONFIG_TOYBOX_NORECURSE now disables the stack measuring logic (which
1163was giving some "security" code fits). Also we typecast pointers to (long)
1164before comparing them to avoid spurious compiler "optimizations" that
1165break the code.</p>
1167<a name="02-02-2016" /><a href="#02-02-2016"><hr><h2><b>February 2, 2016</b></h2></a>
1168<blockquote><p>"I checked it very thoroughly," said the computer, "and that
1169quite definitely is the answer. I think the problem, to be quite honest with
1170you, is that you've never actually known what the question is."
1171- The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy.</p></blockquote>
1173<p><a href=downloads/toybox-0.7.0.tar.gz>Toybox 0.7.0</a>
1174(<a href=>git commit</a>)
1175is out.</p>
1177<p>The new commands in defconfig are <b>iotop</b>, <b>top</b>, <b>pgrep</b>,
1178and <b>pkill</b>
1179(most replacing corresponding versions from pending). Added grep -ABC,
1180swapon -d (discard), mkswap -L (label) and UUID support, and find -delete.
1181Izabera added free -h and unshare -f. Josh Gao implemented tail -f.
1182Jose Bollo submitted cp --preserve=context,attr. Kylie McClain added
1183mktemp -u.</p>
1185<p>In pending there's the start of a vi command, and Sameer Pradhan contributed
1186a new dhcp6. This cycle saw several rounds of route cleanup and a little dhcp
1187cleanup, but neither are complete yet. Lipi Lee did some cleanup to netstat.c
1188and Elliott Hughes removed warnings from traceroute.</p>
1190<p>Lots of updates to ps: several new -o options, -k (--sort) -O and -M,
1191improved compatibility with Android's historical behavior, and
1192extensive internal code cleanup (including the removal of all
1193the magic constants).</p>
1197<p>Dreamhost restored the <a href="#12-21-2015">missing 11 months</a>
1198to the mailing list archive, in the process deleting the month after
1199that. Now they've asked if I have mbox files archiving the new
1200gap (between December 20, 2015 to January 21, 2016, and presumably they
1201could also fill in the gap from December 14, 2014 to January 3, 2015 that's
1202been there since the last time they did this),
1203but due to some gmail filtering I've
1204<a href=>never
1205been able to disable</a>, my copy of those files is spread among 3 different
1206mbox files I'd have to sort/filter/collate. (It's on the todo list.)</p>
1208<p>Added a code of conduct to the README (we're
1209<a href=>borrowing twitter's</a>) because somebody
1210made it necessary.</p>
1213<p>Fixed another sed bug where any ] right after [ was skipped (not just the
1214first one in the range, so [[] didn't terminate). Fixed sort -f and added test cases.
1215Assume 80 columns in "ls -m | cat", ls -L is no longer backwards,
1216and ls of files with no paths no longer uses an uninitialized (zero) dirfd.
1217Several bugfixes
1218to find (Gilad Arnold fixed -perm, Daniel K. Levy fixed "find . -exec echo {}",
1219and while we're there I fixed find --prune, made "find . -execdir
1220echo {} + -execdir ls {} +" work, and ripped out the environment size
1221measuring code that checked for a 128k limit removed back in linux 2.6.22).
1222Elliott Hughes fixed the date command's parsing of 4 digit
1223years and documented the %s escape, fixed hwclock -u, and pointed out
1224that runcon needs to exec to do its job (not recursively call another
1225command_main() in the same process). Tom Marshall reported that blkid was
1226handling ext2 wrong. Mike Moreton corrected cpio extraction's uid and gid
1227values, and added a --no-preserve-owner option. Fixed the SUID permission
1228dropping logic (which was a bit over-zealous, preventing some commands from
1229running at all).</p>
1231<p>I'm told that debian-testing broke its libc so the nsenter build breaks,
1232but my attempts to install the debian-testing network cd image under
1233qemu keep breaking. Maybe someday they'll fix it enough I can actually
1234reproduce the problem. (Debootstrap under unbuntu builds an ubuntu-flavored
1235chroot in which toybox builds fine.)</p>
1238<p>Rewrite of the about.html page, tweaks to design.html, and a re-triage of
1239sbase in roadmap.html. Update to to collate multiple span
1240tags with the same id, resulting in a larger status.html page (which
1241was previously ignoring some commands in the roadmap).</p>
1243<p>Expanded the defconfig/allyesconfig/allnoconfighelp text in "make help"
1244to explain what they're for.</p>
1248<li><p>Expanded toys.optargs to 64 bits so a command can have more than 32 options.</p></li>
1249<li><p>Added NOEXIT() wrapper to turn xwrap() functions into warning versions
1250using the existing longjump(toys.rebound) infrastructure.</p></li>
1251<li><p>Renamed dirtree->data to dirfd and stopped storing symlink length
1252into it (this fixed a bug where following symlinks to directories
1253didn't give a valid directory filehandle, noticeable with ls -Z).</p></li>
1254<li><p>New TAGGED_ARRAY() infrastructure generates index and bitmask macros
1255for arrays of structures starting with a name string.</p></li>
1256<li><p>New lib/linestack.c for utf8 fontmetrics (draw_str() and utf8len()
1257and so on), and for tracking multiple lines of text
1258(vi, less, shell history) that need wordwrapping and scrolling up/down.</p></li>
1259<li><p>Upgrades to lib/interestingtimes.c: scan_key() now has a timeout
1260in milliseconds and recognizes more sequences including ANSI
1261window size probes. New utf8 test files in tests/files/utf8 including
1262sequence reversing, stacked combining chars, and all three types of
1263unprintable sequences (low ascii <32 ala ^X, invalid utf8 sequences ala
1264<AB><CD>, and invalid unicode code points ala U+1234).</p></li>
1265<li><p>More comma handling code in lib.c: comma_args()</p></li>
1266<li><p>Added error_msg_raw() to shut up fortify's endless static checking false
1268<li><p>readfileat() can now realloc() in a loop to read long files
1269("zcat | insmod" needed it).</p></li>
1273<p>We're getting close to having a self-hosting development environment
1274using toybox for the command line. The remaining busybox commands in
1275<a href=>Aboriginal Linux</a> are:</p>
1278awk bunzip2 bzcat bzip2 dd diff expr fdisk ftpd ftpget ftpput gunzip gzip
1279less ping route sh sha512sum tar test tr unxz vi wget xzcat zcat
1282<p>And the remaining non-busybox commands in Aboriginal Linux's build/host
1283directory (from the distcc, genext2fs, e2fsprogs, zlib, and squashfs packagesi)
1287mke2fs fsck.ext2 resize2fs distcc genext2fs unsquashfs distccd mksquashfs tune2fs
1290<p>Squashfs and distcc are probably out of scope for toybox, but mke2fs,
1291fsck.ext2, resize2fs, genext2fs, and tune2fs should all be added to the
1292above "busybox" replacement list.</p>
1294<p>Remind me to include this countdown in future releases. Once they've all
1295been replaced, the next goal is <a href=>building AOSP under itself</a>.</p>
1297<p>See the full <a href=roadmap.html>roadmap</a> and <a href=status.html>status</a>
1298pages for more details.</p>
1300<a name="12-21-2015" /><a href="#12-21-2015"><hr><h2><b>December 21, 2015</b></h2></a>
1302<p>Yes, 11 months have gone missing from the mailing list web archive.</p>
1304<p>Yesterday evening Dreamhost's mailman server went down (timing out trying
1305to connect). I poked them about it, they
1306<a href=>blamed
1307DNS</a>, I explained that the hang was _after_ the DNS lookup and
1308entered the dig info into the trouble ticket showing the IPs the DNS
1309queries were returning, they reinstalled the server at that IP from what I
1310assume was their most recent backup, and that's how 11 months of messages
1311vanished out of the archive.</p>
1313<p>I've <a href=>continued to poke them about it</a> but I honestly believe that's the best they
1314can do. <a href=>Last time</a>
1315this sort of thing <a href=>happened</a>
1316we went back and forth for months, so I added a link to a backup web
1317archive (in the nav bar on the left) that isn't controlled by dreamhost,
1318and thus doesn't gratuitously lose data on a regular basis. (I note
1319the earlier hole in Dreamhost's archive was never fixed either. That
1320was data never getting archived, this is a year's worth of data that
1321was in the archive until yesterday vanishing after the fact.)</p>
1323<p>If you're wondering why the <a href=>top level</a>
1324list page has been "temporarily disabled" for multiple years now... you'd have
1325to ask Dreamhost. I know I have. More than a dozen times.</p>
1327<a name="03-11-2015" /><a href="#03-11-2015"><hr><h2><b>November 3, 2015</b></h2></a>
1328<blockquote><p>"Alright," said Ford. "How would you react if I said that I'm
1329not from Guildford after all, but from a small planet somewhere in the vicinity
1330of Betelgeuse?" Arthur shrugged in a so-so sort of way. "I don't know," he
1331said, taking a pull of beer. "Why - do you think it's the sort of thing you're
1332likely to say?" - The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy.</p></blockquote>
1334<p><a href=downloads/toybox-0.6.1.tar.gz>Toybox 0.6.1</a>
1335(<a href=>git commit</a>)
1336is out.</p>
1338<p>We have a new <b>ps</b> command with all the -o fields posix wants (although
1339it doesn't accept BSD non-dash option syntax yet), and <b>bunzip2</b> (not just
1340bzcat but the proper extract-in-place command).
1341Sameer Pradhan added <b>hostid</b> and <b>fsync</b>.
1342Elliott Hughes added <b>flock</b>.
1344<p>The people waiting for <b>human readable number support</b> (du -hH, ls -h,
1345and so on) can thank Elliott Hughes for implementing it. (Our output doesn't
1346exactly match others' because we our "binary" mode will say 1.0G instead of
13471024M, which is a bug in the other one we didn't emulate.)</p>
1349<p>The other big news is <b>nommu support</b>, tested on the new
1350<a href=>jcore</a> processor but presumaby working
1351on any nommu system. A few commands don't support nommu yet, but those
1352are disabled by dependencies on TOYBOX_FORK in menuconfig when building
1353for nommu. The roadmap now has a large section analyzing the uClinux
1354project (note that <a href=></a> is slowly replacing
1355<a href=></a> as the standard repository of
1356all knowledge and wisdom about nommu. The old site <a href=#12-02-2012>contains
1357much that is apocryphal</a>, or at least wildly inaccurate, and the new one
1358is trying to improve on that).</p>
1360<p>Both "make change" and scripts/ (for building standalone commands
1361without the multiplexer logic) now use the top level .config
1362for toybox global settings such as Linux Security Blanket Module selection,
1363(so make defconfig before change now).</p>
1365<p>Documentation updates to the <a href=code.html>code</a> and
1366<a href=roadmap.html>roadmap</a> pages.</p>
1370<p>In the pending directory Sameer Pradhan added tftp,
1371and Elliott Hughes sent lsof. Isaac Dunham upgraded mdev,
1372reboot, init, login, and modprobe, and fixed a distro-specific build break in
1373scripts/mkflags.h. Elliott Hughes and Lipi Lee made netstat -p handle
1374command lines longer than 21 characters, and Elliott fixed netstat -e and
1375some build warnings. Yeongdeok Suh fixed a warning in dhcpd.
1376I started cleanup on pgrep/pkill.</p>
1378<h3>Command updates, bugfixes, and infrastructure</h3>
1380<p>The multiplexer's "command not found" error exit is now 127, so now you can't
1381distinguish between a command not being found in the multiplexer and
1382the multiplexer itself not being found by the shell, because people wanted
1383that for some reason.</p>
1385<p>Elliott Hughes made date reject invalid dates rather
1386than set the clock to something weird (setting the clock 100 years into the
1387future makes most Linux desktops surprisingly unhappy, and ntpdate won't fix it
1388either), fixed several ls -l display issues (user/group field ordering,
1389make user/group/lsmcontext left aligned), did the aforementioned
1390extensive work on human readable number output, fixed ionice's default
1391class, fixed a mv overwrite bug, made df's columns auto-size, added
1392--ppid and -Z to ps, and teamed up with Daniel K. Levy to fix
1393a segfault in find's handling of -newer -group or -user.</p>
1395<p>Hyejin Kim added stat -c %T support. Colin Cross worked
1396on vmstat fixing
1397a header printing bug and calculating the bi and bo columns in the right
1398units. Isabella Parakiss reported that sed -e "/x/c\" -e "y" added an extra
1399newline and that grep -w '\(x\)\1' didn't work, both now fixed.
1400Alistair Strachan fixed several problems with switch_root. Kylie McClain
1401pointed out env should be able to clear variables via NAME= syntax.
1402Dima Krasner added support for running blkid without a partition (so it shows
1403all partitions). Hyejin Kim sent in a bunch of static analysis bug reports.</p>
1405<p>Isabella Parakiss reported that sed -e "/x/c\" -e "y" added an extra
1406newline and that grep -w '\(x\)\1' didn't work, both now fixed.
1407Alistair Strachan fixed several problems with switch_root. Kylie McClain
1408pointed out env should be able to clear variables via NAME= syntax.
1409Dima Krasner added support for running blkid without a partition (so it shows
1410all partitions). Hyejin Kim sent in a bunch of static analysis bug reports.</p>
1412<p>Two large thinko fixes in oneit: -3 was always enabled (which would
1413eventually block if the child never read the exiting PID numbers from its file
1414descriptor #3 until the pipe filled up), and the signal handlers weren't
1415set up right (for requesting semi-graceful halt/poweroff/reboot).
1416Calling install without a mode is now 0755, and install -g 0 no longer clashes
1417with cp --preserve. Better error message for ls -r on unreadable
1418directories, and ls -Z now uses O_PATH (with the /proc/self/fd/%d
1419workaround for kernel stupidity as necessary).</p>
1421<p>Date now understands @unixtime[.fraction] and uses -D for
1422the set-side format (matching busybox's extension for this). The seq -f
1423string now checks that it's got exactly one %f escape with the correct
1424attributes (and a whole bunch of test cases for it). Fixed a bug
1425in od that screwed up the position indicator on arm and mips.
1426In stat the d/h units moved from %d %D to the default string.
1427And patch can now correctly apply hunks with trailing context to the start of
1428the file.</p>
1430<p>The prompt argument moved out of yesno() (the caller can print the prompt
1431themselves). Replaced toys.exithelp with help_exit(). Added new
1432XVFORK() macro, and xpopen_both() calls /proc/self/exe when passed
1433a NULL argv (see cpio -p for example usage). Replaced toys.recurse
1434with toys.stacktop so the recurse or re-exec decision is now based
1435on bytes of stack space used. Marked a bunch of command-local functions
1438<p>New additions to lib/ include strlower(), xconnect(), and the
1439aforementioned help_exit().
1440The testsuite now has some infrastructure tests based on "example"
1441commands such as toys/examples/test_human_readable.c.
1442The login command finally got a long-overdue cleanup (it's one of the
1443commands that predate the "pending" directory but were part of the reason
1444for it). Hexedit had an
1445uninitialized variable (of course gcc didn't spot it, it was too busy
1446warning about "may be used uninitialized but never actually is" variables).</p>
1448<p>Tweaked makefile so
1449"make CROSS_COMPILE=prefix-" (as well as "CROSS_COMPILE=prefix- make",
1450which still works). Toybox is now installed chmod -w so broken installers
1451(like the bunzip2 package's) that try to overwrite existing binaries won't
1452knock out the whole of toybox.
1453GCC 5.2.0 stopped being able to compile Linux 2.6.12's kconfig, but
1454we added a workaround. You can now build uptime without utmpx.h.
1455Alejandro Joya pointed out that enabling smack required smack on the host
1456as well as target when cross compiling, which is now fixed.</p>
1458<p>Note: toybox can autodetect nommu support when building with a uClibc
1459toolchain such as <a href=>the one from Aboriginal Linux</a>,
1460but <a href=>with musl-libc</a>
1461you'll have to enable CONFIG_TOYBOX_MUSL_NOMMU_IS_BROKEN to work around the
1462fact they provide a non-functional fork() implementation that always returns
1463-ENOSYS, to prevent you from compile-time probing for nommu support when
1464cross-compiling. Unfortunately "preventing you from probing" seems to be
1465an explicit policy with musl, they also don't provide an "#ifdef __MUSL__"
1466because their library is perfect and you're only ever allowed to work around
1467other people's bugs, not theirs. So we have to use menuconfig to manually
1468enable musl-specific bug workarounds.</p>
1470<a name="23-07-2015" /><a href="#23-07-2015"><hr><h2><b>July 23, 2015</b></h2></a>
1471<p>I recreated the <a href=downloads/toybox-0.6.0.tar.gz>0.6.0 source tarball</a>
1472(new sha1sum 08fb1c23f520c25a15f262a8a95ea5b676a98d54)
1473because I forgot to add --prefix to the git archive command when I updated
1474my release script from mercurial, so the files weren't in an enclosing
1475directory. (Ooops.)</p>
1477<a name="19-07-2015" /><a href="#19-07-2015"><hr><h2><b>July 19, 2015</b></h2></a>
1479The reason why it was published in the form of a micro sub meson electronic
1480component is that if it were printed in normal book form, an interstellar
1481hitchhiker would require several inconveniently large buildings to carry it
1482around in." - The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy </p></blockquote>
1484<p><a href=downloads/toybox-0.6.0.tar.gz>Toybox 0.6.0</a>
1485(<a href=>git commit</a>)
1486is out. (Yes, git. See the <a href=#05-04-2015>previous news entry</a>.)</p>
1488<p>Sorry for the unusually long gap between releases. Since last release Ye
1489Olde Project Maintainer traveled to japan twice and had two more "once
1490a century" floods at home. (Probably a coincidence.) Still catching up.</p>
1492<h3><b>CELF/ELC talk and Wikipedia[citation needed] article</b></h3>
1494<p>I gave another State Of The Toybox talk
1495(<a href=>video</a>
1496<a href=>outline</a>), in which I
1497repeat my <a href=>perennial</a>
1498<a href=>complaint</a>
1499that Wikipedia[citation needed]
1500<a href=>still</a>
1501<a href=>says</a>
1502toybox was relicensed before its hiatus, when relicensing was why
1503the hiatus ended.</p>
1505<p>Since Wikipedia[citation needed] seems unable to do the
1506<a href=#15-11-2011>most</a>
1507<a href=>basic</a>
1508<a href=>research</a> on
1509this point, and has stuck to an incorrect sequence of events for years,
1510I've been gradually escalating my attempts to correct them. Toybox
1511came out of mothballs in November 2011 <b>because</b> it could be
1512relicensed. That's what opened up a new niche busybox wasn't already
1513filling with a 10 year headstart.</p>
1515<a name="asterisk_back" />
1516<p>The article has plenty of smaller issues<a href=#asterisk>*</a>, but
1517given that I gave an entire talk at Ohio LinuxFest in 2013
1518(<a href=>outline</a>,
1519<a href=>audio</a>) on why I switched away from GPL for
1520my projects, that one bugs me.</p>
1522<h3><b>New stuff this release</b></h3>
1524<p>There's a new android menu in menuconfig, and rather a lot of Linux
1525Security Module support (Smack for Tizen from Xavier Roche and José Bollo,
1526and SELinux for Android from Elliott Hughes; see
1527the Security Blanket menu under global settings in menuconfig) has
1528trickled in, although there's still more to come.</p>
1530<p><b>New commands:</b> Added reset, nproc, ionice, and iorenice.
1531Elliott Hughes contributed xxd, runcon,
1532restorecon, load_policy, getenforce, setenforce, getprop, and setprop.
1533Promoted shred, nsenter, and hwclock.</p>
1535<p>You can once again build catv now the flag infrastructure's been updated to
1536let it coexist with cat -v.
1537And on a long plane flight I wrote
1538hexedit, an interactive hex editor that implements the start of
1539cursor control infrastructure (for eventual use by less and vi and shell
1540command history and so on).</p>
1542<p><b>New options:</b> Added sed -E as a BSD-compatible synonym for -r.
1543Upgraded oneit with -r (restart), -3 (send exiting PID values to child),
1544and signal handling. Added -v option to timeout, -m to mknod, -u to shred,
1545-t to dmesg, and -123 to head and tail. Added implicit "." to grep -r without
1546any files to work on. Hyejin Kim requested prefix support for truncate -s.
1547Greg Hackman added -inum to find.
1548Jan Cybulski added the smack side of ls -Z support. Various patches also
1549added -Z to mkdir, mknod, and mkfifo.
1550Basic cp --preserve support went in, but not yet the xattr/LSM parts.</p>
1552<p>The toybox command now has a --version option,
1553which uses "git describe" if available.</p>
1555<p><b>Build infrastructure:</b>
1556The "make change" target now saves the output of each failed standalone
1557command build in a .bad file, and "make defconfig" is quieter now.</p>
1559<p>Paul Barker submitted a large patch changing command install paths so
1560"toybox can be installed alongside busybox without confusing
1561update-alternatives". (There's some argument over
1562what the right paths should be, and I'm waiting for
1563people to tell me what else needs fixing because I have no idea. I've
1564been symlinking /bin to /usr/bin since 2002
1565<a href=>for
1566historical reasons</a>.)</p>
1568<p><b>Docs:</b> The repository link now goes to github, with another link
1569to the commit rss feed.</p>
1571<p>Elliott Hughes updated the Android section of the roadmap
1572(and he would know). Redid bits of scripts/ to make updating
1573status.html easier, and the README is larger.</p>
1575<p>More description of option parsing in code.html, which now describes the
1576FLAG_x macros, switching flag macro sets with FOR_newcommand, how
1577configuration zeroes flag macros and using FORCE_FLAGS to suppress the
1578zeroing of options shared between commands. Also added description of ";"
1579to make --longopts take an optional =value part, and more about TOYBOX_DEBUG
1580to check NEWTOY() option strings (otherwise a bad option string makes
1581lib/args.c obviously segfault, but doesn't explain why).</p>
1583<p>Added a "Why 0BSD?" section to license.html when submitting zero clause bsd
1584to SPDX (according to the pending license spreadsheet, it's been approved for
1585SPDX 2.2).</p>
1587<p>The old list of commands needing cleanup but not in pending was
1588removed from toys/pending/README and instead the issues were added
1589as TODO comments in the individual commands.</p>
1592Fixed mount -a segfaulting without -O (reported by Janus Troelsen),
1593and made it try a "become rw" ioctl() on the block device before falling
1594back to mounting read only (because Android expects that).
1595Fixed printf -- and printf ---. Lots of tweaks to ls -l spacing with
1596different options. Make touch -d and -t actually set time when you don't
1597specify nanoseconds.
1598Fixed a subtle bug where recursive calls (toybox commands that run other
1599toybox commands) weren't resetting all their state. (This manifested as
1600a "no }" error from "find | xargs sed", but could cause other problems.)
1601And David Halls reported another sed bug trying to compile libiconv (which
1602left extra \ at the start of lines in a generated shell script, breaking
1603the build). Output an error message for "cat /mnt".</p>
1605<p>Kylie McClain reported that mktemp broke when $TMPDIR was set to an empty
1606string (which is not the same as unset), that install/find didn't support
1607numeric uid/gids, and that sort -z affects both input and output.
1608Isabella Parakiss fixed a printf.c bug.
1609David Halls fixed bugs in install -D and find -exec. Samuel Holland
1610fixed unshare -r. Hyejin Kim fixed makedevs with a count of 1, fold -w
1611range checking, an error path in scripts/mkflags.c, added -i to dhcpd,
1612and stopped su from prompting the root user for the new user's password.
1613Jan Cybulski spotted wrong indentation when combining ls -s and -i with -C and
1614-x. José Bollo fixed stat %G. Sameer Pradhan fixed a bug in mkfifo -Z.</p>
1616<p>Elliott Hughes asked for a default SIGPIPE handler to disable
1617the signal handler bionic's dynamic loader installs (yes really). Still not
1618100% sure what the correct behavior is there. (Posix is
1619(<a href=>actively unhelpful</a>, but at least they're taking
1620<a href=>years to
1621make up their mind</a>. Elliott also sent patches to fix a typo in
1622useradd.test, add missing arguments to error_exit() calls and clean up
1623printf() format strings, fix an off by one error in human_readable(),
1624fix dmesg -c error reporting, fix a segfault in comma_scan where the option
1625was the last item in optlist (triggered by mount -o ro,remount), fix
1626hwclock -w, made ifconfig print lowercase MAC addresses (it was bothering
1627him), and make terminal_size() read the right environment variable
1628(LINES, not ROWS). And he suggested the test suite notice high command exit
1629values (corresponding to segfault or other signals).</p>
1631<p>People are apparently using toys/pending commands, despite the police tape
1632and flashing lights, so added louder warnings to toys/pending/README.
1633Elliott Hughes fixed various problems with tar, dd, more, and top.
1634Hyejin Kim cleaned up syslogd and dumpleases. Isaac Dunham added hotplug
1635support to mdev. Yeongdeok Suh added RFC-3315 ipv6 support to dhcpd.</p>
1637<p>I rewrote ps.c from scratch (in pending), but it's not ready for real use
1641On the portability front Bernhard Rosenkranzer fixed a problem where the
1642menuconfig code wouldn't compile in C99 mode. (This led to me documenting
1643the craptacular nature of kconfig in a README, and the plan to replace it
1644sometime before 1.0.) Some extra flags to shut up overzealous llvm warnings
1645were added (and have to be probed for because gcc complains about
1646arguments it doesn't recognize even when they switch stuff _off_ using
1647a standard syntax). Don't depend on malloc(0) to return non-null in ls.
1648David Halls fixed some mac/ios portability issues,
1649implying somebody's built at least part of toybox on a mac.</p>
1651<p>Added basename_r() to lib/lib.c because the posix semantics for basename()
1652are stupid but what the gnu guys did to it was appalling.
1653Turns out bionic already had a basename_r(), but posix still doesn't.
1654Fixed it up in portability.h, but this
1655could break more stuff in future. (Correct fix is to lobby posix to add it,
1656which would probably take about 15 years...)</p>
1659The build now checks $LDFLAGS for linker-only flags, and allows the strip
1660command to fail (binflt toolchains provide a strip that doesn't work).
1661Since time.c uses floating point, added TOYBOX_FLOAT dependency in config.</p>
1663<p>There's a lib/lsm.h defining varous inline functions for linux
1664security modules stuff, if (lsm_enabled()) should turn into a compile-time
1665constant 0 and let code drop out when TOYBOX_LSM_NONE selected, but
1666testing against CFG_TOYBOX_LSM_NONE or derived symbols is still useful
1667becuase when it _is_ enabled the probe turns into a system call you
1668don't want to repeat too much.</p>
1670<p>Switched a bunch of commands from signal() to xsignal(). Factored out
1671xgetgrnamid() and xgetpwnamid() into xwrap.c. Make time.c depend on
1672TOYBOX_FLOAT (since it always uses float so shouldn't be available on
1673build targets without even software float). Added readfileat() to lib/lib.c.</p>
1675<p>The dirtree infrastructure now passes in full flags for the old symlink
1676field, and the new DIRTREE_SHUTUP flag disables warnings if a file vanishes
1677out from under you during traverse. New dirtree_start() wrapper to
1678create dirtree root with only two arguments.</p>
1680<p>The not-curses infrastructure introduced by hexedit mostly moved to
1683<a name="asterisk" />
1684<a href="#asterisk_back" />Asterisk:</a> such when
1685Tim contacted me (my blog says a couple days before nov 13, 2011, I.E.
168611/11/11 not some specific day 2 months later) to ask if I wanted to work
1687on a new project he was proposing called
1688<a href=>BentoBox</a>
1689(because I used to do busybox, he'd forgotten toybox existed
1690until I brought it up). And don't ask me what "focuses not on compatibility
1691with its GNU counterparts" means when CP_MORE adds 7 non-posix options
1692and toys/other has 84 commands in neither posix nor LSB. I think they're
1693struggling to explain the difference having dismissed "licensing" as being
1694the reason it started up again after a long hiatus? The reason I don't think
1695GNU is special is there are a half-dozen other independent
1696implementations of the same unix command tools out there (AT&amp;T,
1697BSD, Coherent, Minix, plan 9, busybox, toybox, and several more analyzed in
1698the <a href=roadmap.html>roadmap</a>, and that's ignoring the implementations
1699written for DOS or in assembly over the years). But I do care what
1700Linux From Scratch expects, and if it's
1701<a href=>calling mv -v</a>
1702then I impelement mv -v
1703even if <a href=>posix hasn't got
1704it</a>. And I don't know why "gnu counterparts" would describe this when
1705util-linux isn't a gnu package, nor are info-zip, e2fsprogs, kmod, less,
1706procps, shadow, sysklogd, vim, zlib, sudo, dhcpcd...</p>
1708<a name="05-04-2015" /><a href="#05-04-2015"><hr><h2><b>April 5, 2015</b></h2></a>
1709<p>Since <a href=>android</a> and
1710<a href=>tizen</a>
1711and <a href=>openembedded</a>
1712and <a href=>gentoo</a>
1713and so on have all been using Georgi Chorbadzhiyski's git mirror rather
1714than the mercurial repository, I bit the bullet and switched the project's repo
1715<a href=>to git</a>. Georgi's
1716<a href=>mirror</a> is now pulling from that.</p>
1718<a name="25-02-2015" /><a href="#25-02-2015"><hr><h2><b>February 25, 2015</b></h2></a>
1719<blockquote><p>"A common mistake that people make when trying to design
1720something completely foolproof is to underestimate the ingenuity of
1721complete fools."</p><p>- The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy.</p></blockquote>
1723<p><a href=downloads/toybox-0.5.2.tar.gz>Toybox 0.5.2</a>
1724(<a href=/hg/toybox/shortlog/1702>commit 1702</a>) is out.</p>
1726<p>New promoted commands: sed (finally fixed enough it builds Linux From
1727Scratch), printf (cleaned up and promoted), shred and
1728base64 (the Tizen guys wanted them), getenforce, setenforce, and chcon (android),
1729mix (promoted with fixes from Isaac Dunham), nsenter (from
1730Andy Lutomirski, merged into unshare).</p>
1732<p>Elliott Hughes submited a bunch of patches to support Android (to
1733both toybox and Bionic libc, which he maintains). On toybox's end this
1734involved a lot of fixups to portability.[ch] and fixes to over a dozen
1735commands, plus several new ones. Other portability fixes included working
1736with buildroot's uclibc fork and building for nommu targets.</p>
1738<p>The new "make change" target builds each toybox command as a standalone
1739binary. Rather a lot of commands that didn't build by themselves (mv depending
1740on cp and so on) were hit with a large rock until they built standalone.
1741This involved rewriting bits of option parsing, more elaborate dependency
1742generation, making each command have its own config
1743symbol and main() function (even when it's just a wrapper calling another
1744command's main()), and so on. Also, some commands can't be built standalone
1745at a conceptual level: "help" describes other enabled commands and "sh"
1746has a number of bulitin commands (cd, exit, set) that require the
1747multiplexer infrastructure, so "make change" filters them out.</p>
1749<p>The mailing list's web archive is still screwed up. Dreamhost has
1750been trying to fix it since approximately September. There are
1751<a href=>two</a>
1752<a href=>other</a> less broken
1753archives, but neither has quite the same UI as mailman.</p>
1755<h3>Bugfixes and tweaks</h3>
1757<p>Cynt Rynt sent in tests for ifconfig,
1758Robert Thompson taught factor to accept whitespace separated arguments,
1759Hyejin Kim pointed out that some of mktemp's longopts were attached to
1760the wrong short options,
1761Luis Felipe Strano Moraes fixed a wrong free() call in bootchartd in pending.
1762Patches from Ashwini Sharma to make "df /dev/node" work, prevent du from
1763looping endlessly following symlinks, and to make expr.c
1764(in pending) understand == and regex matches. (Speaking of expr, it gets
1765priority groupings wrong but the bug was actually in the posix spec's
1766HTML conversion. They fixed the posix spec upstream for us. Still need
1767to fix the expr code, but it's in pending for a reason...)</p>
1769<p>Some commands grew new option flags, such as cp --remove-destination
1770and touch -h.</p>
1772<p>The parallel build has better error reporting now. When toybox needs to
1773re-exec itself to regain suid root permissions and hasn't got the suid bit,
1774it now gives the right error message ("not root" instead of "no such command").
1776<p>Added a test to "mount" to not mount the same device/directory combination
1777over itself (the OS catches this for block devices, but not for tmpfs).
1778Make blkid distinguish ext3 from ext4. Added catv back into cat (because
1779the Android guys wanted it, and they have historical usage on their side,
1780so...). Handle nanoseconds in touch.</p>
1782<p>Fixed a segfault when CP_MORE was disabled (the resulting option flag list
1783no longer defined -d but still had it in option groups at the end).
1784Workaround for glibc redefining dirname() and basename() to random non-posix
1785semantics because gnu. (They could have created dirname_r() but didn't want
1788<p>Fix an ifconfig test that was preventing assigning an ipv4 address to
1789interface aliases. Several cleanup passes on hwclock but not quite
1790promoted out of pending yet.<p>
1792<p>Fixed a wrong error message in rm (if you had a chmod 000 directory and
1793did rm -r on it without -f, after the prompt it would complain it was a
1794directory, which was not the problem).</p>
1796<p>The gzip compression code now does "store only" output to stdout, for
1797what that's worth.</p>
1799<p>Cleanup mountpoint and expand, and remove them from toys/pending/README
1800(a list of commands that predate the toys/pending directory but needed
1801another pass).</p>
1803<h3>Library and infrastructure:</h3>
1805<p>Reworked the option parsing infrastructure so more commands build
1806standalone (via scripts/ or "make change"). The option flag bit
1807values are no longer packed, it leaves spaces where currently disabled
1808flags go, and you can #define FORCE_FLAGS so disabled flags aren't zeroed.
1809This allows multiple commands to more easily share infrastructure, even if
1810your current flag context is for a disabled command (switched off in config),
1811you can force them to stay on and as long as the flags read the same right
1812to left they'll have the same values.</p>
1814<p>We've started removing use of strncpy() because it's a hugely broken
1815standard C function: the length is the maximum length to _append_, not
1816the size of the destination buffer. It memsets the remaining space it didn't
1817copy ala "memset(dest+strlen(dest), 0, len);" so
1818if you think len is the size of dest you're guaranteed to stomp memory off the
1819end). And if it runs out of space it won't null terminate because reasons.
1820(Meanwhile sprintf("%*s", len, str) is counting wide characters in your current
1821locale, so if you set a locale other than "C" it will also go past your
1822allocated buffer size. Whoever is maintining the C library standards is really
1823bad at strings.)
1824Instead we have xstrncat() which will error_exit() if src+dest+1 doesn't
1825fit in the buffer. (Because randomly truncating input data isn't necessarily
1826an improvement.) And there's always xmprintf().</p>
1828<p>Similarly, strtol() doesn't return an error indicator on overflow,
1829you have to clear and then check errno. So new xstrtol() that cares
1830about overflow.</p>
1832<p>The bionic and musl guys agree faccessat(AT_SYMLINK_NOFOLLOW) is not
1833supported, so stop using it.</p>
1835<p>Fixed toy_exec() to detect when argc is in optargs, so we don't
1836need a separate xexec_optargs().</p>
1838<a name="18-02-2015" /><a href="#18-02-2015"><hr><h2><b>February 18, 2015</b></h2></a>
1839<p>Dreamhost continues to be unable to make mailing list archives work, so
1840here's <a href=>another
1841list archive</a> with a less awkward interface than gmane.</p>
1843<p>(Neither gives you the convenient historical monthly views of mailman,
1844but I still have hopes dreamhost will someday figure out what they're doing
1845wrong. They've only been trying since October. Last month they did a
1846<a href=>hardware upgrade to fix a software problem</a>, and the stale
1847data loads much faster now, so that's something.)</p>
1849<p>Update (Feb 19): the archive started updating again, by discarding
1850all the pending data. So there are now _two_ giant holes in Dreamhost's
1851web archive, from Dec 15-Jan 3, and then another hole from Jan 16-Feb 18.
1852The relevant messages are in both of the other archives. Here's hoping
1853the chronic archive constipation problem won't happen a sixth time.</p>
1855<a name="30-12-2014" /><a href="#30-12-2014"><hr><h2><b>December 30, 2014</b></h2></a>
1856<p>Due to Dreamhost's <a href=>ongoing</a>
1857<a href=>inability</a> to make mailman
1858work reliably, I've added a link to a backup web archive at
1859<a href=>gmane</a> to the nav bar
1860on the left.</p>
1862<p>You still subscribe to the list through
1863<a href=>the first link</a>.</p>
1865<p>Update (January 27, 2015): they're <a href=>still working on it</a>.</p>
1867<a name="19-11-2014" /><a href="#19-11-2014"><hr><h2><b>November 19, 2014</b></h2></a>
1869<blockquote><p>"This time it was right, it would work, and no one would have to get nailed to anything." - The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy.</p></blockquote>
1871<p><a href=downloads/toybox-0.5.1.tar.bz2>Toybox 0.5.1</a>
1872(<a href=/hg/toybox/shortlog/1566>commit 1566</a>) is out.</p>
1874<p>It's an interim release, mostly bugfixes. There are several new commands,
1875but they're all in pending.</p>
1879<p>Finally implemented sed, which is still in pending because although
1880it's feature complete according to posix, and even passes the parts of
1881Busybox's sed test suite that aren't explicitly testing for gnu bugs we
1882don't want to copy, it's not yet good enough to build Linux From Scratch.
1883(The ./configure stages use very long sed scripts. 20 commits worth of
1884implementation and debugging, just under 1000 lines of code, and there's
1885still more to do. We're definitely up to some of the "fiddly" commands now.
1886Did you know "echo hello | sed p - -" segfaults gnu sed in Ubuntu 12.04?
1889<p>Talked with the Tizen developers to follow up on their desire to
1890make toybox a part of the base Tizen system, and got a list of commands
1891to add to the roadmap. The tizen todo list is:</p>
1894wget, sha256*, gzip, gunzip, bunzip2, rsync, zdiff*,
1895less, ar, arch, base64, csplit, dir, fmt, join, 
1896nproc, shred, shuf, stdbuf, stty, test, tr, unexpand,
1897users, vdir, diff3, sdiff, dosfsck (fsck.vfat), awk, fdisk
1900<p>(Most of which was already on the todo list, but it helps prioritize.)</p>
1902<p>Fixed md5sum and sha1sum on big endian systems (reported by James McMechan).
1903Andy Lutomirski fixed unshare's help text and option parsing,
1904and submitted nsenter (a tool to use setns(2)) to pending.
1905Isaac Dunham implemented acpi -ctV options, and spotted the bug that ls -d
1906was inappropraitely following command line symlinks without -H or -L (it
1907should act like ls -l does), and ls -F handles symlinks wrong too.
1908Lukasz Szpakowski sent in two bugfixes to tail.c. Cynt Rynt spotted an
1909unnecessary assignment in lib/password.c.</p>
1911<p>Ashwini Sharma's team was as busy as usual, submitting tr, crontab, and
1912ipcrm, and hwclock to pending, more features to the pending ip.c, and a
1913pile of bugfixes (to chgrp, killall, ifconfig, insmod,
1914losetup, comm, cp, id, xwrap, netcat, modprobe, nohup...) mostly found by
1915static analysis. (These fixes are mostly to seldom-used codepaths like the
1916TOYBOX_FREE config option, but test coverage is always appreciated.) Ashwini
1917also suggested upgrading ln -f to leave the original target alone if link
1918creation fails, and reported that mv -f and -i weren't implemented (now fixed).</p>
1920<p>New config option: TOYBOX_NORECURSE prevents xexec() from making internal
1921function calls (for nommu systems with a finite stack).</p>
1923<p>The "toybox" multiplexer command no longer adds a trailing space to each
1924line of command names, so things like "./toybox | tr ' \n' '|'" to create
1925a grep pattern snippet are easier to do. (Why you'd want to is your business,
1926but the output is tidier now.)</p>
1930<p>Isaac Dunham added Android support to portability.h, including compile
1931probes for functions missing from bionic-libc, and annotated the commands that
1932use those functions. We haven't really tested building against bionic,
1933but in theory it's possible now.</p>
1935<p>Running the test suite now color codes the PASS/SKIP/FAIL notifications
1936if output is to a tty. (And in case you missed it last time, VERBOSE=fail
1937to stop at the first failure is really useful.)</p>
1939<p>In loopfiles_rw() use O_CLOEXEC instead of O_RDONLY to request the loop
1940function close filehandles for us. (Otherwise the callback function must
1941close each supplied filehandle itself.)</p>
1943<p>The printf-style escape parsing ("\n" and friends) got factored out into
1944a new unescape() function.</p>
1946<a name="02-10-2014" /><a href="#02-10-2014"><hr><h2><b>October 2, 2014</b></h2></a>
1947<blockquote><p>"There is an art, it says, or rather, a knack to flying.
1948The knack lies in learning how to throw yourself at the ground and miss...
1949Clearly, it is this second part, the missing, which presents the
1950difficulties." - The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy.<p></blockquote>
1952<p><a href=downloads/toybox-0.5.0.tar.bz2>Toybox 0.5.0</a>
1953(<a href=/hg/toybox/shortlog/1512>commit 1512</a>) is out.</p>
1955<h3>New commands</h3>
1957<p>The new commands are find, install, factor, and mount. Promoted commands
1958(cleaned up and moved out of "pending") are lspci, inotifyd, and blockdev.</p>
1960<p>cp now implements -HL and -F to force delete of pending files, cpio now
1961ignores -m and implements -p, ls -C now has utf8 support (using wcwidth
1962instead of strlen), and umount got a number of upgrades involving
1963looking things up in /proc/mounts. Other minor cleanups happend to
1964cut, touch, free, and id.</p>
1966<p>In pending: Bradley Controy submitted mix (adjusts OSS sound volume). Ashwini
1967Sharma submitted diff, userdel, blockdev, ipcs, and crond, upgraded
1968fdisk, fsck, and ftpget, and ran a static analyzer on a lot of other code.
1969Partial cleanup was done to useradd, userdel, groupadd, and groupdel.</p>
1971<h3>Build infrastructure</h3>
1973<p><b>Parallel builds</b></p>
1975<p>The build now takes advantage of SMP, autodetecting the number of
1976processors. (Export the environment variable CPUS to pick a specific number.)
1977Other build changes: split out $LDOPTIMIZE because old compilers complain
1978about linker options passed with -c, and the entire "generated" directory now
1979gets deleted by clean (the README that was in there got merged into code.html).</p>
1981<p><b>Standalone builds</b></p>
1983<p>The standalone build infrastructure (scripts/ got upgraded to
1984build more commands as standalone executables. In the source file
1985selection uses a regex to find the source files with the NEWTOY/OLDTOY macro
1986for the command. It enables each command's
1987sub-options (so CP has CP_MORE), enables I18N and FLOAT support to build
1988full-featured commands, and includes --help text (at least when
1989the command doesn't use another command's help). The OLDTOY() macro
1990now produces (redundant) function prototypes so you can build an OLDTOY
1991without the NEWTOY</p>
1993<p>It doesn't quite have complete coverage yet, the defconfig entries that
1994aren't building standalone yet are:</p>
1996<blockquote><p>chown, egrep, fgrep, fstype, halt, mv, nc, poweroff, unix2dos,
1999<p>The main reason for standalone build failures is NEWTOY() or OLDTOY()
2000entries that don't have their own config symbol. Another problem is entries
2001that depend on another entry in kconfig, usually because common infrastructure
2002is using one command's flags (which the other commands copy): if that command
2003is disabled, the FLAG macros become 0 so dead code elimination can remove the
2004code. It's <a href=>possible
2005to untangle</a> this, but a bit awkward. (It boils down to conflicting
2006design goals in the two contexts.)</p>
2008<p>Standalone builds are used by the test suite when testing individual
2011<p><b>Snapshot builds</b></p>
2013<p>A new addition to the "generated" directory is generated/
2014containing a single compiler command line to build toybox in its current
2015configuration. Combined with the generated/*.{h,sh} files from an
2016exisiting build, this may let you build on a new system that hasn't quite
2017got enough OS bits working to run a full configureand make.</p>
2021<p>Library code: xcreate/xopen now O_CLOEXEC by default to avoid leaking
2022filehandles to child processes. DIRTREE_COMEAGAIN's second callback is now
2023done with the directory filehandle still open (new dir->again variable added
2024to distinguish first from second callback, and requesting DIRTREE_RECURSE now
2025requires passing in the specific macro value, not just a true/false).
2026Use daemon() out of libc instead of hand-rolled daemonize() in various
2027pending commands. string_to_mode() now passes through type bits so you can
2028use it to more easily modify a file's existing mode.
2029Split xpopen() into xpopen_both(), xopen(), and xrun() depending on whether
2030we want to redirect both, one, or neither of stdin/stdout.</p>
2032<p>Bugfixes: Better error message when TOYBOX_SUID option can't drop priviliges
2033(which happens when you suid something _other_ than root).
2034The old pending version of nbd_client.c wasn't deleted when the
2035command was promoted (and the build would break if both were enabled),
2036toy_exec() sometimes needs to re-exec from $PATH rather than recurse
2037internally (to gain dropped root permissions or limit stack depth),
2038always call setlocale() when I18N is enabled to switch it back _off_ when
2039we run commands that expect sscanf("%n") to return bytes,
2040dirtree() had a memory leak in an error path, patch.c had some bugs in
2041error paths (didn't report problem clearly). Ashwini Sharma spotted an
2042option parsing bug where [-abc] would forget _all_ command line arguments
2043saved in the GLOBALS() block (not just the ones for options being switched
2044off), plus various minor fixes to nbd_client and cpio.
2045Lukasz Szpakowski fixed rm -f on a broken symlink (failed), and killall
2046with no arguments (segfaulted).</p>
2050<p>A somewhat fiddly fix to rm -rf (which needs to chmod directories to u+rwx
2051to descend into them) which hit a musl bug in faccessat() which the musl
2052maintainer refuses to fix. (He literally wants the man page changed
2053instead, despite other libcs working.) Added an #ifdef __MUSL__ section
2054to portability.h with a workaround, you may need CFLAGS=-D__MUSL__ in your
2055build if your musl build's features.h doesn't #define that. (I may do
2056a different workaround in future, but sometimes you've just got to make
2057it work so you can ship. Also, toybox grep with multiple patterns
2058requires <a href=>a patch
2059to musl's regex engine</a>, which applies to 1.1.4 but not to the current
2060musl source control.)</p>
2062<p>More portability.h fixes for uClibc too. (I don't expect that to ever have
2063another release, so locally patching around posix-2008 violations is silly).</p>
2065<p><b>Change to username filtering</b></p>
2067<p>Posix recommends the username creation logic filter usernames to a small
2068allowed set of characters (which even Red Hat breaks by explicitly allowing
2069"$" at the end), but this prevents UTF-8 usernames. Posix' stated logic
2070is to allow filesystems to create the user's home directory, but Linux
2071filesystems can accept any character but NUL and "/". The only characters
2072we actually _need_ to filter out are ":" (field separator in passwd),
2073newline (line separator in passwd), and "/" (directory separator in
2078<p>Web pages updated: cleanup.html documents more cleanup, code.html
2079documents more code, and about.html now capitalizes "toybox" consistently
2080(it's just a word, capitalize at start of sentence).</p>
2082<p>The pending/README file now lists commands that needed review/cleanup
2083before the pending directory was added.</p>
2085<h3>Test Suite</h3>
2087<p>Moved out of scripts/test into top level "tests" directory, and the script is now in scripts rather than mixed into the *.test files.</p>
2090<p>Johan Bergström requested VERBOSE=fail to make tests (telling it to
2091stop at the first failure), and spotted a build bug where using gnu
2092sort on the host broke in non-C locales.</p>
2094<p>Divya Kothari submitted tests for chmod, link, tar, bzcat, xzcat, zcat,
2095and hostname. (And more, but that's all that's merged so far.)</p>
2097<a name="07-07-2014" /><a href="#07-07-2014"><hr><h2><b>July 7, 2014</b></h2></a>
2098<blockquote><p>"This planet has - or rather had - a problem, which was this:
2099most of the people living on it were unhappy for pretty much of the time. Many
2100solutions were suggested for this problem, but most of these were largely
2101concerned with the movement of small green pieces of paper, which was odd
2102because on the whole it wasn't the small green pieces of paper that were
2103unhappy." - The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy.</p></blockquote>
2105<p><a href=downloads/toybox-0.4.9.tar.bz2>Toybox 0.4.9</a> (<a href=/hg/toybox/shortlog/1385>commit 1385</a>) is out.</p>
2107<p><b>New commands</b> added to pending include:
2108lsattr, chattr, inotifyd, rfkill, sulogin, strings, makedevs,
2109killall5, and tar from Ashwini Sharma, arp from Kyungwan Han,
2110sysctl by Bilal Qureshi, partprobe from Bertold Van den Bergh,
2111host from Rich felker, and I did nbd-client and the first 2/3 of mount.</p>
2113<p>Finished cleanups (commands promoted out of pending):
2114sysctl, rfkill, strings, mkpasswd, makedevs, partprobe, killall5,
2115fallocate, and nbd-client.</p>
2117<p>(Along the way partial cleanups got made to: last, fold, lspci, ps,
2118bootchartd, init, fsck, telnetd, telnet, vconfig, toysh, iconv, useradd,
2119login, host, openvt, deallocvt, getty, tftpd, and modprobe. But there's
2120still more to do on all of those.)</p>
2122<p>This time around the <a href=bin>static binaries</a> are linked against
2123musl instead of uClibc. (That's why there's no sparc version, musl doesn't
2124support that target yet.)</p>
2128<p>The help text parser expects lower case "usage:" lines with
2129a blank line after them, so go through and regularize those. Expand the
2130"coding style" section in the docs and move it to design.html. (Not a show
2131stopper for incoming
2132contributions, just an explanation of some of the things I'll do to them
2133during cleanup.) The help text for the "toybox" command now includes
2134the shell script snippet to install symlinks to the toybox binary.</p>
2136<p>The <a href=cleanup.html>cleanup page</a> now has descriptions for the
2137full ifconfig cleanup series, among others.</p>
2139<p>The new toys/examples directory contains hello.c and skeleton.c. The first is
2140a simple hello world program in toybox style, the second is a much more
2141elaborate example program using showing how to use the command line option
2142parsing and how to provide multiple commands in the same C file.</p>
2146<p>Fix od bug reported by Samuel Holland ("od -v -b" was appending the default
2147output type even though an output type was specified). Ashwini Sharma reported
2148bugs where readfile() was incorrectly freeing its buffer, and where toy_init()
2149was zeroing the wrong data because the field it was using to measure (rebound)
2150had moved (when I moved it back I added a comment why the field needs to be
2151there), fixed a segfault in the dhcp client, and made a 0 length read at
2152the start of password entry count as EOF. Make the "we are not root" test
2153in the init code show the help text. Posix implies that fflush() can return
2154success even when the stream's error bit is set, so call both fflush() and
2155ferror() from xprintf().</p>
2157<p>Isaac Dunham pointed out that bloatcheck couldn't deal with diff
2158implementations that only implement "unified diff" format, and that some
2159diff implementations can't handle nonseekable input (I.E. reading from
2160a pipe). Bugfix so "help -a" works again. Option parsing on nohup now stops
2161at first nonoption argument. Fix segfault in "which" if PATH wasn't set,
2162which was actually a bug in lib function find_in_path(). Made rm -rf of
2163chmod 000 directories actually remove them.</p>
2165<p>The build now passes the same $CFLAGS to the library probe as the final
2166build, because arch linux is so broken it provides different sets of
2167libraries for static and dynamic linking.</p>
2169<p>It turns out sprintf("%.123s", str) is counting characters, not bytes,
2170so globally enabling locale support opens stack smashing vulnerabilities.
2171So there's a new TOYFLAGS_LOCALE you set in toyflags when you want the
2172setup code to setlocale().</p>
2176<p>Isaac Dunham extended cpio to archive unreadable empty files, and I taught it
2177to set uid/gid and timestamp when extracting archives. Isaac also
2178added tests for cpio, link, and du, added lspci -i, made the pci database
2179parsing skip # comment lines, merged logname and whoami into id.</p>
2181<p>Daniel Verkamp sped up md5sum about 30% with some loop unrolling, making
2182it actually smaller in the process. I added -b flags to md5sum and sha1sum
2183for "brief" output that's just the hash with no filename. (I'm aware other
2184implementations use that for MSDOS "binary" mode, and don't care.)</p>
2186<p>When building standalone commands (scripts/ commandname),
2187the build now switches on all the sub-options of the command so we get
2188a standalone version with all the bells and whistles enabled.</p>
2190<p>Add -ds flags to date and document +FORMAT escapes. Add the shell NOP
2191command ":" as an alias for true (for toysh).</p>
2193<p>Add uClibc probe for iconv() and fallocate. (The fact it didn't always
2194build against uClibc is why fallocate wasn't enabled in defconfig before.)</p>
2196<p>The umount command now does an losetup -d on the device by default, so
2197we don't leak loopback devices. Bugfix to losetup so "losetup /dev/loop0
2198filename" actually works again.</p>
2200<p>Divya Kothari sent in test suite entries for ls, ln, rm, mv, printf, dd,
2201and renice. Then a second round for lsattr/chattr, mount, chmod, pgrep/pkill,
2202groupadd, groupdel, and useradd. Several of these uncovered bugs, still
2203working to fix them.</p>
2205<p>There are now free() functions for the predefined llist types and a
2206dlist_terminate() function to break doubly linked lists. The new
2207generic_signal() handler either sets "toys.signal" or writes a byte
2208to toys.signalfd with the signal number if signalfd isn't -1 (which it's
2209initialized to in toy_init).</p>
2211<p>The option parsing logic can now detect when a double fits in a long and
2212use the more precise type for floating point arguments (the FLOAT macro
2213contains the type used). The human_readable() function now just outputs
2214decimal kilo/mega/gigabytes (so when du -u says 5.0G it means 5.0 billion
2215bytes). The build infrastructure now notices duplicate commands (so if you
2216cp toys/pending/command.c toys/other/command.c and forget to delete the
2217first one, the build break is now more informative).</p>
2219<a name="20-04-2014" /><a href="#20-04-2014"><hr><h2><b>April 20, 2014</b></h2></a>
2220<blockquote><p>And to this end they built themselves a stupendous supercomputer
2221which was so amazingly intelligent that even before the data banks
2222had been connected up it had started from "I think therefore I am" and got as
2223far as the existence of rice pudding and income tax before anyone managed to
2224turn it off. - The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy.</p></blockquote>
2226<p><a href=downloads/toybox-0.4.8.tar.bz2>Toybox 0.4.8</a> is based on
2227<a href=>commit 1262</a>. And
2228about time too.</p>
2230<p>The big news is that the build no longer needs python to generate help.h,
2231that's now done in C. The help text generation is also collating help text
2232from multiple options, merging command line option blocks and usage: lines.
2233There's even a new <a href=help.html>help web page</a>.</p>
2235<p><b>New commands:</b> Ifconfig, cpio, and su were cleaned up the rest of the
2236way and promoted out of pending. That saga is mostly explained on the
2237<a href=cleanup.html>cleanup page</a>. Vivek Bhagat's freeramdisk,
2238Isaac Dunham's fsfreeze, and Felix Janda's iconv are also new.</p>
2240<p><b>In pending:</b>
2241Ashwini Sharma's team submitted tcpsvd, udpsvd, telnet, telnetd, last, more,
2242groupdel/delgroup, arping, brctl, ftpget, ftpput, printf, reset, and added
2243ipv6 support to traceroute. Kyungwan Han's team submitted modprobe and getty.
2244Vivek Bhagat submitted openvt and deacllocvt. Samuel Holland submitted fold.
2245I wrote a new inflate (zip/zlib/gzip decompression) implementation in
2246compress.c, and still  need to do a corresponding deflate (compression-side)
2247and plug them into gzip and zip and so on. (Right now it does zcat.)</p>
2249<p>Several commands (vmstat, login, du, vconfig, mountpoint, free, chroot,
2250cut, touch, modinfo, expand) predate the "pending" directory, and are thus
2251in other directories but still need cleanup. Of these, vmstat got some
2252work this time (which would be much easier other vmstat implementations
2253documented what their output actually meant).</p>
2255<p><b>Upgrades:</b> Ifconfig grew /prefix netmask support (ala Grep now has -zZ to
2256handle null terminated data, cksum grew -H for hex output. Upgraded od so the
2257fields align better when producing multiple output types. Help has -a and -h
2258options (all commands, html output).
2259Bugfix to blkid building for a 32 bit target. The date command can actually
2260set dates now. The O_NOFOLLOW compile time probe didn't work with cross
2261compiling, so it's back to an #ifdef test in portability.h. Nathan McSween
2262sent in a bugfix to od and a portability fix in the common library code.
2263Ashwini Sharma spotted a bug in pidof -o, and added verbose (-v) options
2264to mkdir and ln, and suggested killall should have an -s option and
2265allow -l to take zero arguments. Ashwini Sharma and Felix Janda upgraded
2266tftpd.  Fixed dumpleases still using toynet.h after
2267that was removed. Corrected killall return code and error reporting.
2268Isacc Dunham fixed bugs all over the tree, did cleanup on a bunch of
2269pending commands (getty, ftpget, init, openvt, modprobe...), and clarified
2270find's help text. Tom Sparrow ran three different static analyzers on
2271the code, which resulted in a few cleanups. The peek()/poke() functions
2272now use "volatile" to prevent broken compiler "optimizations" to do with
2275<p><b>Build stuff:</b> Each FOR_xxxx macro now has a complementary CLEANUP_xxxx macro, so you
2276can put multiple commands with different command line options in the same
2277.c file, so they can share infrastructure outside of lib. (This let the
2278bunzip logic move out of lib into bzcat.c.) See XXX for example.
2280<p>The headers #included in toys.h are now grouped by standard, and headers
2281not listed in Posix or LSB were moved to portability.h. The old xregcomp.h
2282was folded into lib.h because it's posix (and supporting oddball uClibc
2283configurations isn't as important as it once was).</p>
2285<p>Regression tested against Ubuntu 8.04 to fix up bit-rot in defconfig
2286build on older systems. (We depend on Posix-2008, but not necessarily
2287the absolute latest build environment.)</p>
2289<p><b>In lib</b>: lib/xwrap.c added xgetpwnam(), xchroot(), and lib/lib.c now has names_to_pid().
2290xsetuid() was replaced with xsetuser() which takes a struct passwd
2291and sets both gid and uid, mkpathat() got factored out into a library command,
2292get_int_value() became atolx_range(), and
2293xmsprintf() is now just xmprintf(). The bunzip2 logic moved from lib into
2296<p><b>Documentation</b>: new <a href=help.html>help page</a> with the
2297help text for all the defconfig commands, using the new help -ah output.
2298The <a href=code.html>source code walkthrough</a> now says more about
2299#including header files, and how the generated/* directory works. The
2300<a href=design.html>design page</a> has some new paragraphs about trading
2301of different kinds of simplicity, and why comments aren't a substitute for
2302good code. The README no longer trails off into obvious unfinished confusion
2303at the end. Each page on the website should now have its own title.</p>
2305<a name="18-11-2013" /><a href="#18-11-2013"><hr><h2><b>November 18, 2013</b></h2></a>
2306<blockquote><p>"Space," it says, "is big. Really big. You just won't believe how vastly, hugely, mindbogglingly big it is. I mean, you may think it's a long way down the street to the chemist's, but that's just peanuts to space." -
2307The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy.</p></blockquote>
2309<p><a href=downloads/toybox-0.4.7.tar.bz2>Toybox 0.4.7</a> is based on
2310<a href=>commit 1122</a>.</p>
2312<p>New commands: Brad Conroy submitted blkid. Elie De Brauwer submitted
2313reboot, halt, and poweroff. Strake's nl got cleaned up and promoted from
2314pending to posix. In addition, the existing chvt and vconfig got some
2317<p>That said, I haven't nearly kept up with the flood of new commands going
2318into pending: Ashwini Sharma's team submitted
2319dd, dumpleases, traceroute, top, useradd, groupadd, mkpasswd, tftpd, and
2320an fsck wrapper (with no filesystem drivers yet). Isaac Dunham sent in cpio.</p>
2322<p>Bugfixes: Jeroen van Rijn added a user count to uptime. Elie De Brauwer
2323added -e to watch, removed a memory leak, and fixed a terminal size problem.
2324William Haddon made xargs call its command line once even with blank input
2325(the standard is vague, but builds expect it), and fixed an off by one bug
2326where grep didn't malloc enough space with -E (leading to a segfault).
2327I fixed a glitch in bunzip2 (same one as went into busybox since they're using
2328the code I wrote), in od to fix -t co, -J, and -c options. Add uname -o as a
2329synonym for -s. Build fix to never use $CC without prefixing it with
2330$CROSS_COMPILE (since $HOSTCC could be different). Anca Emanuel spotted
2331a typo in the web page.</p>
2333<p>The compile-time command line option parsing got rewritten (ported from
2334bash to C), which should speed up builds a bit and allow code controlled by
2335--longopts to drop out properly when disabled in the configuration. Terminal
2336querying got refactored. Patch's -x option is now more informative (a
2337debug thing if you're trying to figure out why a patch didn't apply).
2338The "toynet.h" file got folded into toys.h since musl supports it and
2339micromanging uClibc options isn't very interesting anymore. The test suite
2340now uses scripts/ when testing a single command.</p>
2342<a name="17-09-2013" /><a href="#17-09-2013"><hr><h2><b>September 17, 2013</b></h2></a>
2343<blockquote><p>"Think of a number," said the computer, "any number."
2344Arthur told the computer the telephone number of King's Cross railway
2345station passenger inquiries, on the grounds that it must have some function,
2346and this might turn out to be it. - The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy</p>
2349<p><a href=downloads/toybox-0.4.6.tar.bz2>Toybox 0.4.6</a> is based on
2350<a href=>commit 1068</a>.</p>
2352<p>This release adds
2353several new commands: Felix Janda wrote paste and fallocate, Kyungwan Han
2354submitted eject, Strake contributed grep, Ashwini Sharma added pmap (and
2355a testsuite entry for grep), Lukasz Skalski sent pwdx, Isaac Dunham posted
2356acpi, and I did timeout and umount.</p>
2358<p>The ls command now has a --color=auto option (suggested by Rich Felker).
2359The multiplexer now has a --help option so you can say "./toybox --help blah"
2360instead of using the built-in "help" command. (Which is a shell built-in.
2361Try it on your command line, it's like man for shell builtins. But a certain
2362other project has conditioned people to expect --help, so...) I forget who
2363heehooman at gmail is but they pointed out unshare needed PID and UID
2364namespace support.</p>
2368<p>A lot of new commands in toys/pending, to the point the next release should
2369probably just focus on cleanup and review of this backlog. We've got klogd,
2370dhcp, dhcpd, watch, route, and ps from
2371Ashwini Sharma (and an fsck wrapper but no fsck.fstype engines yet),
2372syslogd, pgrep, and pkill from Madhur Verma, netstat by Ranjan Kumar,
2373test by Felix Janda, lspci by Isaac Dunham, nl, su, and renice by strake (I.E.
2374M. Farkas-Dyck), and sysvinit by Kyungwan Han.</p>
2376<p>Some cleanup work on existing pending commands that aren't
2377ready to promote yet: I did a few more rounds on ifconfig
2378and Isaac Dunham's did several cleanups to xzcat, Felix Janda cleaned up
2379logger and syslogd...</p>
2381<p>Also some cleanup work on commands that predate the pending directory,
2382but weren't quite polished when they went in, most prominently du,
2383expand, and touch.</p> 
2387<p>The new scripts/ builds a standalone command without the
2388multiplexer, although not all commands can be built that way yet (NEWTOY yes,
2389OLDTOY no) and the space savings aren't anything to write home about. (If a
2390command needs the option parsing logic at all, it needs all of it.) If
2391you're curious, you can do:</p>
2394make defconfig
2396mkdir singles
2397for i in $(./toybox)
2399  echo $i
2400  PREFIX=singles/ scripts/ $i || break
2403<p>(And then wait a long time and watch almost half the builds fail.)</p>
2406<p>There is now libbuf analogous to toybuf, another global 4k buffer this
2407time for use by lib/ code instead of command code.</p>
2409<p>The lib directory got split up a bit, lib/pending.c contains functions
2410not yet used by anything outside of toys/pending/*, and lib/xwrap.c contains
2411functions that wrap other functions and handle failures (via error_exit).
2412This leaves lib/lib.c containing actual new functions.</p>
2414<p>General improvements and bug fixes to argument parsing. The [-abc] exclude
2415logic should now clear arguments slots when disabling options. Bare --longopts
2416should work now and be able to report errors using their name, the new ;
2417option allows optional arguments to longopts only suppliable with = (I.E.
2418--color and --color=auto but not --color auto).</p>
2420<p>I'm gradually weaning the code off of itoa()/utoa() because sprintf
2421does this already. In this case "simple" probably means "let libc do it
2422for us".</p>
2424<p>Rewrote for_each_pid_with_name_in() and renamed it to just names_to_pid().
2425It shouldn't get confused trying to compare absolute and relative paths quite
2426so much anymore.</p>
2428<p>lib/llist.c grew a new dlist_pop() function for removing a doubly
2429linked list entry while maintaining a circular list; tail and patch are
2430using it now.</p>
2432<p>The musl guys suggested a new optimization flag
2434that shaves about 10% off the binary size by removing a C++ism that crept
2435into gcc's idea of C. While I don't normally try to micromanage the compiler,
2436"-fstop-being-stupid" is a thing you have to hit gcc with from time to time.</p>
2440<p>Felix Janda and I did a largeish rewrite of tail to
2441finally make it work right (we think). Still need to implement tail -f
2442someday (the tricky bit is making -f follow multiple files at once).
2443Felix also reported a bug in xpidfile.</p>
2445<p>Juhani Haverinen pointed out that
2446python 3 doesn't work with, so the detection logic looks
2447for python2 (until I get around to rewriting that in C). Elie De Brauwer
2448then fixed our first attempt at this, and also fixed uname's help string.</p>
2450<p>Ashwini Sharma
2451pointed out the build was making a FLAG_ macro for " " which broke some
2452configurations. (That's a control character, not a command line option.)</p>
2454<p>Jacek Bukarewicz pointed out a bug in chdir permission handling, and
2455a way to make env segfault. Both should be fixed now.</p> 
2457<p>The new function xexec_optargs()
2458replaces calls to xexec(toys.optargs) to avoid freeing and reusing optargs
2459during option parsing screwing stuff up (such as netcat's exec mode).</p>
2461<p>The stat command's %a output was padded with leading zeroes, which
2462didn't match anybody else's behavior and thus made the test suite hiccup
2463between TEST_HOST and testing toybox. (If you go "TEST_HOST=1 scripts/
2464command" it sanity checks the tests against the host implementation.)</p>
2466<p>Last release, "mkdir sub/sub && chmod 007 sub/sub && rm -rf sub" didn't
2467delete sub and didn't exit with an error either. Neither was correct, rm
2468should now be fixed.</p>
2471<a name="26-07-2013" /><a href="#26-07-2013"><hr><h2><b>July 26, 2013</b></h2></a>
2472<p>Georgi Chorbadzhiyski maintains a <a href=>git
2473mirror</a> of the repository on github, automatically updated from the
2474mercurial every 6 hours. The mirror is read only, but you can generate patches
2475against it and post them to the list.</p>
2477<a name="02-07-2013" /><a href="#02-07-2013"><hr><h2><b>July 2, 2013</b></h2></a>
2478<blockquote><p>"Time is an illusion. Lunchtime doubly so." "Very deep. You
2479should send that in to the Reader's Digest. They've got a page for people
2480like you." -
2481The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy.</p></blockquote>
2483<p><a href=downloads/toybox-0.4.5.tar.bz2>Toybox 0.4.5</a> is based on
2484<a href=>commit 941</a>. It adds
2485uuencode and uudecode from Erich Plondke, and enables Luis Morales' "who" by
2486default. Felix Janda and I cleaned up last year's "stat" submission and
2487enabled it. Ivo van Poorten added "groups".
2488Andre Renaud added "lsusb". I implemented "split", "pivot_root", and "mv".
2491<p>The "help" command is implemented differently now (lib/help.c) and
2492each command can now understand --help (including both "toybox --help"
2493and "toybox --help command" in the multiplexer).</p>
2495<p>The "pending" directory has several commands (find, xzcat, nbd-client,
2496logger, expr) which work but are not enabled by default pending further cleanup.
2497Ifconfig is enabled, but still in pending because it's only 2/3 cleaned up.
2498(It's an awkward halfway state but I'm not holding up the release for it.)</p>
2500<p>I'm <a href=cleanup.html>documenting the cleanups</a> to teach
2501more people to do it, but the writeups aren't caught up yet. The
2502<a href=roadmap.html>roadmap</a> also got updated a bit with further analysis
2503of other projects, and the README and about pages got updated.</p>
2505<p>Fixed _another_ "ls -C" segfault when terminal size can't be detected,
2506condensed the ls help text to fit on one page, implented --color, and taught
2507-l to print the major, minor numbers when showing block/char devices.
2508Argument parsing now handles "--" properly (to end option checking),
2509and the infrastructure can now handle bare --longopts that have no
2510corresponding short option (both were implemented before but didn't work).
2511Fixed an old bug in "patch", chmod grew -f, who grew -a. Isaac Dunham
2512fixed "-" vs "_" handling in modinfo, added a "firmware" output
2513field, added -b and -k support, and taught it that the ".ko" extension means
2514to look for the file at the specified path instead of under /lib. Felix Janda
2515moved file permission display code to lib so ls and
2516stat could share it. Ashwini Sharma spotted a bug in xabspath when the
2517last path component exists but we haven't got permissions to open it
2518(ala readlink -f /dev/sda as a normal user).
2521<p>In the build infrastructure, scripts/ finds leaked global
2522variables. (Leaked means they aren't part of the global union: Other than glibc
2523debris, toybox should define "this", "toy_list", "toybuf", and "toys", and
2524that's it; the rest add memory footprint to every command for the benefit of
2525just one command; use GLOBALS() to stick 'em in the union.) Static linking
2526against libraries other than the host's libc now applies to feature probes
2527for unshare and such. Neuter stupid internationalization support that makes
2528various host "sort" commands put things in an order other than alphabetical
2529(breaking the multiplexer's binary search on command names).
2531<p>You should now be able to build from a source control snapshot on a build
2532system that hasn't got python: if you disable CONFIG_TOYBOX_HELP. (The
2533release tarballs ship generated/help.h, but it's not in source control.
2534Eventually I should rewrite that python script in C.)</p>
2537<p><b>LICENSE TWEAK</b>: After <a href=>discussion</a> on the mailing list the "2 clause
2538BSD" <a href=license.html>license</a> got slightly simplified so the first
2539paragraph now says:</p>
2541<blockquote><p>Permission to use, copy, modify, and/or distribute this
2542software for any purpose with or without fee is hereby granted.</p></blockquote>
2544<p>It used to continue "provided that the above copyright notice and this
2545permission notice appear in all copies", but A) what's the point? B) does "all
2546copies" mean binaries, or just source code, or what? C) lots of projects
2547that consider BSD and GPL compatible have <a href=>files with
2548both license notices</a> on them (sometimes at <a href=>opposite ends of the file</a> to make the conflict
2549less obvious) because "all copies must include this function" would violate
2550the GPL but "all copies must include this magic text blob" somehow don't?</p>
2552<p>I don't want to have to care about this anymore. The tweaked version is more
2553or less public domain with a liability disclaimer, but we're still calling it
2554BSD (sometimes "0 clause BSD") to avoid explaining.</p>
2556<a name="21-03-2013" /><a href="#21-03-2013"><hr><h2><b>March 21, 2013</b></h2></a>
2557<p>Video of my ELC talk
2558"<a href=>Why is Toybox?</a>"
2559is up on youtube. Related materials include the
2560<a href=>talk outline</a> and an
2561<a href=/aboriginal/about.html#selfhost>android self-hosting writeup</a>.</p>
2563<p>[Updated June 4] The following links jump to specific topics in the video. (Sorry about
2564the ads, it's The Linux Foundation.)</p>
2567<li>0m29s <a href=>The smartphone is replacing the PC</a></li>
2568  <ul>
2569  <li>4m22s <a href=>Software needed to become self-hosting</a></li>
2570  <li>6m20s <a href=>Do we care if android or iphone wins?</a></li>
2571  </ul>
2572<li>9m45s <a href=>Android not vanilla: oppose or accept?</a></li>
2573  <ul>
2574  <li>11m30s <a href=>Open source can't do User Interfaces</a></li>
2575  </ul>
2576<li>15m09s <a href=>Android is not copyleft: oppose or accept?</a></li>
2577<li>18m23s <a href=>Security issues</a></li>
2578<li>21m15s <a href=>Solutions to the software problems</a></li>
2579  <ul>
2580  <li>22m55s <a href=>What toybox needs to be/do</a></li>
2581  <li>28m17s <a href=>What is toybox?</a></li>
2582    <ul>
2583    <li>28m58s <a href=>Why toybox started...</a></li>
2584    <li>37m50s <a href=>What does toybox actually implement?</a></li>
2585    </ul>
2586  </ul>
2591<a name="14-03-2013" /><a href="#14-03-2013"><hr><h2><b>March 14, 2013</b></h2></a>
2592<blockquote><p>"Ford, you're turning into a penguin. Stop it." -
2593The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy.</p></blockquote>
2595<p><a href=downloads/toybox-0.4.4.tar.bz2>Toybox 0.4.4</a> is based on
2596<a href=>commit 813</a>, adding
2597the "time" and "readahead" commands, plus some bugfixes.</p>
2599<p>The "cp" command now implements the -s symlink option, plus bugfixes
2600getting various corner cases right as used in actual package builds.
2601"id -Gn root" should now print root's groups
2602instead of the current user's. Several build fixes so toybox builds under
2603Ubuntu 8.04 again (which is about as old a build environment as you
2604can expect to find posix-2008 features in).</p>
2606<p>Unfinished commands have generally been moved to "toys/pending".
2607Everything else should "default y" to participate in make defconfig.
2608Several of those pending commands got some basic cleanup so allyesconfig
2609should at least compile (although defconfig is still what's useful).</p>
2611<p>Significant roadmap updates, checking several other multicall binaries
2612(klibc, sash, sbase, s6...) to see what commands they include.</p>
2614<a name="18-01-2013" /><a href="#18-01-2013"><hr><h2><b>January 18, 2013</b></h2></a>
2615<blockquote><p>This must be Thursday. I never could get the hang of Thursdays. - The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy.</p></blockquote>
2617<p><a href=downloads/toybox-0.4.3.tar.bz2>Toybox 0.4.3</a> is based on
2618<a href=>commit 793</a>. There
2619are now exactly 100 commands in defconfig (of a little over 220 on the
2620<a href=roadmap.html>todo list</a>).</p>
2622<p>Elie De Brauwer added the rev command, cleaned up tac, implemented the -s
2623and -f flags for seq, added -v and -i to killall (and fixed killall not to
2624kill itself before finishing its pid list), and added to the test suite.
2625Felix Janda added -m to mkdir, pwd -L and -P, and more test suite entries.</p>
2627<p>Rob Landley added the losetup command, and fixed the existing ls, cp, and
2628readlink commands. The segfault in ls
2629happened when it couldn't determine the screen size (last release changed the
2630default to -C and a screen size of 0 made column view unhappy), and cp got an
2631extensive rewrite bringing it up to date with the dirtree changes and fixing
2632a number of things it never did right in the first place. The xabspath()
2633code in the library now handles a symlink after ".." properly (and the test
2634suite checks for it).</p>
2636<p>Infrastructure-wise the code is better about automatically setting the
2637error return code properly. Now error_msg() sets the exit code to 1 if it's
2638still defaulting to 0, and the global exit path does a fflush(NULL) with error
2639bit check rather than trying to be quite so granular about flushing. (That
2640means if we use printf() instead of xprintf() it still exits with the right
2641error code, it just doesn't end the program early on an output error.)
2642Minor bugfix so TOYBOX_DEBUG
2643doesn't always warn about the lack of suid bit when toybox is built with
2644at least one STAYROOT command. Bugfix for the option [grouping] logic
2645(and then further fixes to the error reporting pointed out by Ashwini Sharma).
2646dirtree_handle_callback() now has a prefix like the rest of the dirtree
2647functions. A lot of stuff doing manual path handling was switched to using
2648libc basename() (including, embarassingly, the basename command), which means
2649it now correctly detects "/trailing/slash/" which the previous code didn't.</p>
2651<p>Also, last release included some accidentally checked in debug code that
2652disabled compiler optimization, so the binary size bloated a bit. It's back
2653to -Os by default now.</p>
2655<a name="15-12-2012" /><a href="#15-12-2012"><hr><h2><b>December 15, 2012</b></h2></a>
2656<blockquote><p>"The major difference between a thing that might go wrong and a
2657thing that cannot possibly go wrong is that when a thing that cannot possibly
2658go wrong goes wrong it usually turns out to be impossible to get at or repair."
2659</p><p>- The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy.</p></blockquote>
2661<p><a href=downloads/toybox-0.4.2.tar.bz2>Toybox 0.4.2</a> is based on
2662<a href=>commit 749</a> and is
2663just a resync. Linux 3.7 came out, meaning it's time to do an Aboriginal
2664Linux release, and that should use a stable version of toybox. So here's
2665a new stable version.</p>
2667<p>The new commands are cut (from Jason Kyungwan Han), touch
2668(from Choubey Ji), expand (from Jonathan Clairembault, and he fixed a
2669bug in login), and rm (from Rob Landley). Felix Janda added UTF-8
2670support infrastructure (for non-ascii character sets) with a config option.
2671Elie De Brauwer added tests for cat and sha1sum, and -so options to pidof.
2672The "ls" command defaults to -C (column view) now, and "readlink" now supports
2675<p>Portability work: toybox should now build against the musl C library,
2676and against older glibc versions (circa 2008, much before that and kernel
2677features we depend on start to drop out).</p>
2679<p>The whole codebase got reindented from "one tab" to "two spaces" per
2680level. The option parsing logic now understands [groups] of commands (when more
2681than one in a group is selected it can switch the others off, or error out,
2682or other things). The error_exit() infrastructure can now longjmp back to an
2683earlier point instead of exiting. Each toys/* directory now has a README,
2684the first line of which is the fancy name menuconfig uses for the directory
2685(so no more hardwired directory list in scripts/</p>
2687<p>Fixed a filehandle leak in getmountlist().
2688Pass parent pointer to dirtree_add_node() so it can give error messages with
2689full path. The yesno() function now always reads from stdin and writes to
2690stderr (we can retry tty checking complexity once we've got commands needing
2693<p>The open group broke their website so the
2694<a href=>old links</a> to POSIX 2008
2695now <a href=>need to start with
2696pubs</a>. Some of the links in the tree have been updated, others haven't while
2697I wait to see if their webmaster notices and fixes it.</p>
2699<p>(I note that the current rm implementation is not technically posix compliant
2700because the standard requires infinite recursion depth and the current
2701implementation uses one filehandle per level. I can add a config option
2702to do it Posix's way, which is more brittle and needs extra security checks,
2703but am waiting for somebody to complain first. The default "ulimit -n" is 1024
2704filehandles, so drilling down over 1000 nested subdirectories).</p>
2706<a name="13-11-2012" /><a href="#13-11-2012"><hr><h2><b>November 13, 2012</b></h2></a>
2707<blockquote><p>"Rule Six: The winning team shall be the first team that wins."
2708- The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy.</p></blockquote>
2710<p><a href=downloads/toybox-0.4.1.tar.bz2>Toybox 0.4.1</a> is based on
2711<a href=>commit 691</a>.</p>
2713<p>Elie De Brauwer contributed usleep, Ashwini Kumar contributed du, and
2714Kyungwan Han contributed vconfig. Other new commands include switch_root and
2715md5sum, and the remaining shell wrappers are now proper commands (dos2unix,
2718<p>The patch command now supports -l, and gethostname is now enabled by
2719default. The df command follows symlinks to get the actual device name.
2720Felix Janda added -m support to wc (for utf8).</p>
2722<p>On the infrastructure side, the commands have now been grouped into
2723"posix", "lsb", and "other" subdirectories (for things required by Posix-2008,
2724the Linux Standard Base 4.1, and commands in neither). This affects menuconfig
2725and the actual source layout (toys/cp.c is now toys/posix/cp.c, and so on).
2726An android directory is planned (see the updated
2727<a href=roadmap.html#android>android roadmap analysis</a>).</p>
2729<p>The FLAG_ macros for command option parsing and TT alias for the command's
2730global block are now automatically generated, commands should
2731#define FOR_commandname before #including <toys.h> to get the macros for that
2734<p>An upgrade to the build infrastructure now allows commands with _ and -
2735in them, such as switch_root.</p>
2737<p>Bugfixes: Avery Pennarun spotted a case where ls showed uid twice instead of
2738uid and gid, and that nice was using the wrong range of numbers.
2739The ls command also recursed inappropriately last time (not quite
2740properly converted for the dirtree changes last release), and now it's
2741fixed. Roy Tam pointed out a glitch in sh, and fixed df's percentage
2742calculation to match the POSIX spec. The kernel build didn't like our mktemp
2743and it does now. The wc command wasn't quite posix compliant (trailing spaces
2744break stuff). The ls command recursed inappropriately last time (not quite
2745properly converted for the dirtree changes last release), and now it's
2746fixed. The catv command wasn't displaying byte 255 correctly. Some lib
2747fixes (thinko in xpidfile). Fixed uname -m when running a 32 bit x86 binary
2748on an x86-64 host (it lies and says the system is i686, i586, or i486 depending
2749on what the toolchain that built the binary supported. This makes builds in
2750a 32 bit chroot on a 64 bit kernel break less.) The df command was checking
2751partitions in the wrong order (displaying undermounts instead of overmounts:
2752this used to work but some library code changed out from under it and it
2753wasn't updated to match until now). Felix Janda filled out the test suite
2754some more. The patch file creation logic got tweaked several times to
2755successfully apply more patches. Support for older (pre 2.10) glibc
2756versions was added to portability.h.</p>
2758<p>Miscelaneous cleanups all around (mknod, sha1sum, logname), including a
2759rewrite of taskset to be less dependent on libc getting the headers right. All
2760the command headers should now point to the current relevant standards
2761document, where applicable.</p>
2763<p>This news page had old news entries from before the relaunch moved into
2764a separate <a href=oldnews.html>oldnews</a> page.</p>
2766<p>I forgot to create <a href=bin>static binaries</a> last time, but they're
2767back now.</p>
2770<a name="23-07-2012" /><a href="#23-07-2012"><hr><h2><b>July 23, 2012</b></h2></a>
2771<blockquote><p>"Ford", Arthur said. "There's an infinite number of monkeys
2772out here who want to talk to us about this script for Hamlet they've worked
2773out." - The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy.</p></blockquote>
2775<p><a href=downloads/toybox-0.4.0.tar.bz2>Toybox 0.4.0</a> is based on
2776<a href=>commit 640</a>.</p>
2778<p>The new <a href=status.html>status page</a> is calculated from
2779the roadmap info, and should be easier to keep up to date in future.</p>
2781<p>Andre Renaud contributed od and modinfo. Elie De Brauwer contributed
2782taskset, bugfixes to cmp and tail, and tests for sort and tail. Kyungwan Han
2783contributed passwd. Gaurang Shastri contributed w. Ashwini Sharma spotted a
2784case where dirtree was adding extra slashes to a path.</p>
2786<p>I rewrote od, cleaned up comm, documented the
2787<a href=code.html#lib_llist>llist</a> and
2788<a href=code.html#lib_dirtree>dirtree</a> infrastructure, added an -r option
2789to date (and fixed a bug where -u wouldn't override /etc/localtime),
2790fixed bugs in chmod +stw, fixed ls to show suid bits properly when the
2791corresponding executable bit wasn't set, and worked around a longstanding
2792glibc bug where static linking prevents stdout from automatically flushing
2793pending output on exit.</p>
2795<a name="25-06-2012" /><a href="#25-06-2012"><hr><h2><b>June 25, 2012</b></h2></a>
2796<blockquote><p>"For a moment, nothing happened. Then, after a second or so, nothing continued to happen." - The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy.</p></blockquote>
2798<p><a href=downloads/toybox-0.3.1.tar.bz2>Toybox 0.3.1</a> is based on commit
2799<a href=>commit 607</a>. It's
2800mostly a bugfix release for ls -l (which was unhappy on targets other than
2801x86-64), plus a new "date" from Andre Renaud and rewritten chgrp/chown which
2802now support the full set of posix flags, plus a little work on the test
2803suite and some more header tweaks towards eventual compatability with the
2804musl libc.</p>
2806<p>The todo list runneth over, but "release early, release often", so here
2807it is. The roadmap and documentation are a bit behind, and I've got ~40
2808pending submissions to review. I need to catch up...</p>
2811<a name="12-06-2012" /><a href="#12-06-2012"><hr><h2><b>June 12, 2012</b></h2></a>
2812<blockquote><p>"For instance, on the planet Earth, man had always assumed that
2813he was more intelligent than dolphins because he had achieved so much - the
2814wheel, New York, wars and so on - whilst all the dolphins had ever done was
2815muck about in the water having a good time. But conversely, the dolphins had
2816always believed that they were far more intelligent than man - for precisely
2817the same reasons." - The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy.</p></blockquote>
2819<p>It's well past time for <a href=downloads/toybox-0.3.0.tar.bz2>toybox 0.3.0</a>,
2820so here it is, based
2821on <a href=>commit 595</a>, and the
2822statically linked <a href=downloads/binaries>prebuilt binaries</a> should
2823actually be statically linked this time (thanks Ashwini Sharma for spotting
2826<p>It's hard to figure out where to cut a release, because development
2827doesn't stop. "Long before now" is the obviuos answer, of course.
2828The project's maintainer also moved house during this development cycle, which
2829threw things off for a bit (so many boxes). Releases should hopefully be a bit
2830more frequent from here on.</p>
2832<p>The big things Rob worked on this time were the new dirtree (directory
2833tree traversal) infrastructure, and a complete rewrite of ls using that
2834which should now implement all 26 posix options.</p>
2836<p>Georgi Chorbadzhiyski added printenv, whoami, mkdir, mkfifo, chmod, chown,
2837chgrp, and uniq. He also added fraction and extension support to sleep (so if
2838you need a quarter-second sleep, it can do that now), and fixed a build bug
2839on slackware.</p>
2841<p>Daniel Walter contributed a string to mode_t parser (in use by chmod and
2842mkdir -m).  Ilya Kuzmich contributed comm. Elie De Brauwer added mountpoint,
2843vmstat, logname, login, and mktemp. Kevin Chase did some portability cleanups.
2844Pere Orga fixed some documentation.</p>
2846<p>The "tac" and "clear" commands are now normal commands instead of shell
2847wrappers, and the header #includes have been cleaned up a bit to remove
2848deprecated functions and attempt to increase compatability with the bionic and
2849musl C libraries, "tail" should now use lseek() for large files, and "id" got
2850some cleanups and bugfixes.</p>
2852<p>The new TOYBOX_FLOAT configuration option selects whether or not
2853to include floating point support (for embedded targets where that's
2856<p>Several random bugfixes: unshare() might actually build portably now,
2857yes 'n' | cp -i should no longer bypass stdin and prompt via the tty, the
2858SUID support no longer drops permissions going through the toybox
2859multiplexer command, and a bugfix to xargs -0 means it should no longer
2860segfault. (I have a pending bug report about xargs not doing the full
2861posix whitespace handling that -0 obsoleted, but I'll deal with that next
2864<p>The build infrastructure is now automatically generating FLAG_ macros
2865for the options, but currently with the wrong names. Some more macro glue
2866is necessary, which I haven't quite figured out how to do yet.</p>
2868<p>A defconfig toybox at the start of the $PATH has successfully built
2869Linux From Scratch (in my Aboriginal Linux project). The commands that
2870'default n' in the config are often still broken, cleanup is ongoing.
2871(The new dirtree stuff broke several of them that haven't been converted
2872yet, but if I wait until everything works we won't have a release before
28731.0, so here's a checkpoint.)</p>
2876<a name="03-03-2012" /><a href="#03-03-2012"><hr><h2><b>March 3, 2012</b></h2></a>
2878<blockquote><p>"They went unnoticed at Goonhilly, passed over Cape Canaveral
2879without a blip, and Woomera and Jodrell Bank looked straight through them.
2880Which was a pity, because it was exactly the sort of thing they'd been looking
2881for all these years."</p></p>- The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy.</p>
2884<p>Here's <a href=downloads/toybox-0.2.1.tar.bz2>toybox 0.2.1</a> based
2885on <a href=>commit 512</a>.  This
2886time around, there are statically linked <a href=downloads/binaries>prebuilt
2887binaries</a> for various embedded targets.</p>
2889<p>It's been a busy few weeks, almost entirely due to new contributors. (I
2890have not quite been keeping up.)</p>
2892<p>Elie De Brauwer contributed free, uptime, swapon, swapoff, lsmod, mknod,
2893insmod, rmmod, and fixed a bug in basename.  Andre Renaud contributed ls, ln,
2894realpath, and hostname. Andres Heck contributed pidof and killall.  Daniel
2895Walter wrote kill and extended id. Timothy Elliott contributed tail and tests
2896for cmp. Frank Bergmann sent a warning fix. Bryce Fricke added -i to cp.
2897Nathan McSween pointed out an optimization. Georgi Chorbadzhiyski fixed
2898cross compiling to work more reliably.</p>
2900<p>(My own contribution this time around was just tightening up other people's
2901code, a build fix to unshare, some random bugfixes, and so on. My only new
2902code this time around was writing a bash replacement for the existing python
2905<p>Last time (the 0.2.0 release) included the first pass at an id command from
2906Tim Bird, env and basename from Tryn Mirell, cmp and head from Timothy Elliott,
2907more bugfixes from Nathan McSween and Elie De Brauwer, and Luis Felipe Strano
2908Moraes did a first pass at the who command plus other bugfixes and
2911<p>(For that release I did xargs, cal, truncate, unlink, nohup, tty, wc, link,
2912dirname, unshare, and various infrastructure tweaks, but it took me 3 months
2913and those guys did their stuff in a week or so.)</p>
2916<a name="12-02-2012" /><a href="#12-02-2012"><hr><h2><b>February 12, 2012</b></h2></a>
2918"for though it has many omissions and contains much that is apocryphal, or at
2919least wildly inaccurate, it scores over the older, more pedestrian work in two
2920important respects..."</p>
2921<p> - The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy</p></blockquote>
2923<p>Here's the first BSD licensed release,
2924<a href=downloads/toybox-0.2.0.tar.bz2>toybox-0.2.0</a>, more a synchronization
2925point than anything particularly useful.  47 commands in a reasonably
2926ready-to-use state (what "make defconfig" builds), another ten or so partially
2927finished stubs ("make allyesconfig"), and several
2928patches pending on the mailing list I need to review and merge.</p>
2930<p>More to come...</p>
2933<a name="15-11-2011" /><a href="#15-11-2011"><hr><h2><b>November 15, 2011</b></h2></a>
2934- Back from the dead, Toybox is now under a 2
2935clause BSD license, and aiming to become the default command line
2936implementation of Android systems everywhere.</p>
2938<p>More to come...</p>
2942<p><a href=oldnews.html>Old news</a> from before the relaunch.</p>
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